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Full text of "A Course of Lessons in Public School Music, 76-100"

SIXTH GRADE SERIES J 

SIEGEL- MYERS 

« 

Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N? 76 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Three -Part Singing 

Our success in two-part singing is by this time very thoroughly established, 
and by changing the parts freely, we find that every child is able to sing any part 
to which he ir assigned. We now need the more perfect harmony afforded by three- 
part singing, and we shall find that this offers no particular trouble wherever the 
drill on two-part work has been thoroughly done. As with other subjects in this 
Course of Lessons, part singing has been developed in a gradual and systematic 
manner, and we are therefore ready to take up three-part singing with the proper 
foundation already laid. 

It is well to give some preliminary drill in chord singing and three-part 
rounds, before attempting the regular three-part exercises and songs. Divide the 
class into three sections, either up and down or across the room, grouping the 
children by rows of seats. Change the parts as before, so that every child is able 
to sing the lower, middle or upper part at will. The only exception to be made is 
in the case of a few older boys, who now have entered the period of voice chang- 
ing, and should always sing in the lower part. When the division of the class has 
been effected, the lesson may be continued in the following manner: 

Now, children, we are going- to learn to sing songs with three 
parts or in three sections, just as we know how to sing in two 

sections. {Teacher makes three divisions of the class.) All sing Do,Mi, Sol 
from lower C. {Teacher gives G on pitch pipe, and class sings in unison as 

directed.) N°w the first division may hold Sol, the second may drop 

Copyright MCMXII by Sieg-el- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



back to Mi, and the third may drop back to Do. Now all hold your 
tones and listen to the sound of the chord which you are singing 1 . 
{Children sing as directed.) Now change the parts and sing the chord a- 

gam. (Children sing after the teacher has indicated a re-arratigement of the 

divisions.) Now sing again, and each division will take the part it 

has not yet had. {Teacher again indicates a third re-arrangement of the parts, 
and children sing.) 

In the same way let us sing Re, Fa, La. One division holds La, 
the second division drops back to Fa, and the third sings Re. Now 
we will change the parts and sing it again. That was very good. 

Now let us sing Mi, Sol, Ti. We will divide these tones as we 
did before and hold the chord. Next, we will take Fa,La,Do, and 
then Sol, Ti,Re. We will also change the parts on these chords. 
Let us sing La, Do, Mi, and hold it as we did before. The last one 
is Ti, Re, Fa. Everybody hold his part and then we will all meet 

together on Do. (Throughout the above drills^repeat and change parts as in 
the previous exercises) 

Continue the study by a drill on the three-part round given in Illustration N9 1. 
Review the suggestions given in Lesson N? 62 for the study of rounds, and after 
dividing the class into three divisions and singing the round through together, al- 
low the different sections to begin at their respective measures and sing in the 



usual manner. 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 



111. N9 1. 

THREE -PART ROUND 



OLD ENGLISH 



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and ear - ly to 



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Makes a man health - y, and wealth - y and wise; 



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Wise, 



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health - y, and wealth 



P. S L. No. 76 



Now take an easy three-part exercise, such as given in Illustration N9. 2 
(a) or (b), and have all the children sing the lower part, and then the upper parte. 
Divide the class into three sections and sing- the exercises, each section with its 
respective part. Change the parts and sing- again; then give the exercise a third 
time, assigning that part to the division which has not sung it already. Study 
other simple three-part exercises in the same way, and the excellence of the results 
will surprise you. 

III. N? 2 



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Many supervisors feel that in part singing- the parts should be sung simul- 
taneously from the first, since, as they say, this affords the best training- in inde- 
pendence, reading-, and accurately sustaining the melody in song or exerci. i. When 
skill has been developed in singing in groups or parts, it certainly does make for 
independence to give simultaneous reading. But, on the other hand, there is 
a distinct gain in power in being able to sing any and all parts at will, and a 
much greater increase in accuracy, if the singing of the individual is founded 
on a definite knowledge of all the parts. 

In years of experience in presenting part singing, it has been the observa- 
tion of the writer that when the class sings the parts, first separately and then 
together, there are secured much better and surer results, than when the attempt is 
made always to sing the parts simultaneously. Mistakes are almost sure to be 
made, and it saves much time to correct these before putting the parts together. 
On the other hand, much time is often lost in singing the separate parts over and 
over again, and not putting them together until they are most thoroughly learned. 
This is likewise a mistake in the other direction. Ordinarily it is sufficient to read 
each of the parts through once, after which they should be sung together. 

Occasionally it is well to sing an easy song or exercise with all parts simul- 
taneously. This is the ideal result and all work should tend toward this desired end; 



but at first it is well to test the efficiency of your pupils in this respect only oc- 
casionally. After a song has been well learned and every pupil knows every part, 
you may permit them to choose the part they like the best and let them sing that 
part, when singing- the song just for pleasure. 

By following the drill outlined in this lesson, there should be no difficulty in 
singing any ordinary three-part study or song. At first your work must be en- 
tirely on simple exercises and songs, but this will gradually lead to the devel- 
opment of sufficient skill to enable the pupils to sing the more difficult work 
that will be required in the upper grades. 

The following exercises are to be used in the development of three -part 
singing, having all the children sing the vowel sound Ah. 



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Natural Music Reader No. 2. Permission American Book Co. 



In the song "Spirit of the Summer Time" the repeat mark : II indicates that 
the' section from the first measure to this mark, is to be sung twice. 

SPIRIT OF THE SUMMER TIME 



WM. AIXINGHAM. 

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Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 76 

( Class Letter and No 

Account No 



Name \ 



Town State Percentage. 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching In the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 



1 Upon what foundation do we now take up the study of three-part singing?. 



What is the advantage to be gained by three-part singing? 



3 Name two good preliminary drills for three-part singing. 



4 Give a short model lesson on chord singing. 



, £ xp lain the value of changing the parts often. 



6 Give a short model lesson on the three-part round given in Illustration No. 1 






7 What is the value of permitting the children to sing all three parts in unison and 
afterwards arranging the class into groups.? 



8 Discuss fully the advantages of this method over that requiring the pupils to sing three 
parts simultaneously at first sight 



9 Why, in your opinion, should an easy song or exercise be read occasionally with all 
parts simultaneously ? 



10 Summarize again, and briefly, the points to be observed in the study of any three-part 
song or exercise 






11 Explain the meaning of the "repeat mark" given in the song "Spirit of the Summer 
Time." 



If you are teaching at the present time, answer the question below which pertains 
to yonr Grade, In order to secure a percentage. If you are not teaching:, it is not necessary 
to answer either question. 

12 If you are teaching in the Sixth Grade, and can put the lesson in this particular part 
of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions given, 
as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular lesson, indi- 
cate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained. 



' Seventh and Eighth Grade teachers only, should anszver the following questions: 
13 (a) Which of the two methods outlined in this lesson have you used in teaching part 
songs? 



(b) Give a complete report of the success you have in teaching three-part singing. 



( c ) Name two suggestions which you gained from this lesson which may be applied 
directly to the improvement of part singing in your class ivork 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., yon may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. l 



Answer 



Q. 2.. 



Answer 



Q. 3.. 



Answer 



Q. 4.. 



Answer 



Q. 5.. 



Answer 



SIXTH GRADE SERIES 



SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 



Chicago, 111. 



A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 
PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC 
BY FRANCES E. CLARK 



Lesson N? 77 



Melody Writing 



As far back as Lesson N? 10 in the Kindergarten Series of this Course of 
Lessons, we began the study of melody writing by having the children invent their 
own original melodies. They were asked to sing in their own way, the name of a 
floweror playmate, or even a little phrase. After they had learned how to do this, 
the idea was further developed by inventing and pointing out original melodies on 
the scale ladder, and later writing them on the staff. Then came some little exer- 
cises in Lesson N? 41 of the Third Grade Series, for inventing a melody for a 
given line or couplet of poetry. Now we are ready for further development of 

this same subject. The children must have experience in writing melodies for a 
couple of lines or a stanza in proper rhythm and meter. This subject can be de- 
veloped best in the following manner: 

Now, children, today we are going" to learn to write little melo- 
dies for the words of poems, that is, we are going- to learn to make 
little songs ourselves. We shall try to make these just as good as 
the songs which we have been learning to sing. Let us, first of all, se- 
lect a simple couplet. This one will do nicely: 

"Morning dells I love to hear, 
Binging 'merrily, loud and clear? 

Let us read it together and accent or scan it, to determine the 

rhythm, by saying the accented words very strongly. Children, read 

this couplet with strong emphasis on the words as I have indicated it, 

(teacher underscores the syllables italicized) and mark the accented words 

with a stroke of the finger on the desk. Now, how do you hear the 
rhythm? Do you think it is two part, three part or four part? {Some 
child says "Four part?) Yes, it is clearly either a two part, or a four 
part rhythm. When we use the quarter note for a unit of counting, 

Copyright MCMX1I by Sieg-el- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



we have noticed that our melody will be written in either 4 or 4 

meter. Let us call it \ this time. Now, are we to begin with an 

accented or unaccented note? The first word guides us. {Teacher 

reads the first line) The syllable "Morn" is an accented syllable, and 

hence we must begin on an accented note, or on the first beat of 

the measure. {Teacher draivs a staff on the blackboard a?id ivrites in the clef, 
the kef/ signature of D, and meter signature of J; beneath the staff she writes the 
words of the couplet, as in Illustration N9 1) 



111. No igggg 



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Morn - ing bells I love to hear, Ring-ing mer-ri-ly loud and clear. 

Now, who has a tune in mind for the first line? Mary, you may 
sing us your tune. {Mary sings.) Sing it again, Mary, and I will write 
out in numerals the tones you sing. {Teacher does as indicated.) Now 

who can sing it another way? Clarence may try. That was very good. 
Now, sing it again and I will write the numerals of your tune the 
same way. Now, class, which tune do you like the better, Mary's 

or Clarence S? {Class listens while both are sung again and the majority de- 
cide that Clarence's tune is the better.) Who can sing the second line and 
finish Clarence's tune? Howard, will you try? {Hoivard sings .) Yes, 
that sounds very well. 

Now, let us write the song in notes on the staff. The first thing 
we have to do is to put in the bars. Who can tell whether the bars 
come before or after the accented notes? Yes, they come before. 
Very well. Now, we will sing the tune again with strong accents and 
I will put in the bars just before your accented words. {Teacher does 
as indicated.) That is good, but what about the fourth measure? Does 
it sound complete, and does the word "hear" seem to have one count 
or two? Yes, it has one. How, then, shall we complete the measure? 
By adding a quarter rest, of course. Now, what of the sixth measure? 
How many notes are there and what kind are they? What about 
the eighth measure? Does the word "clear" seem to have one count 
or two? Yes, there are two. What sort of note, then, should it be? 
Yes, it should be a half note. Now, what should I put in to indicate 
that the song is finished? What always comes at the end of a song? 

P. S. M. No -77 



3 

(Some child answers "double bar" and teacher inserts a double bar at the end of the line) 

Now let us take another couplet. This time it can be this one. 

"The loud winds are calling-, 
The ripe nuts are falling." 

How do you hear this, in two part, three part, four part, or six 
part rhythm? Yes, it is clearly in three part rhythm. Do we begin 
on the accented note or the unaccented note? Mary may read over 
the first line and answer. (Mary reads the line and a?iswers u unaccented', 'and 
the teacher draws the staff as before.) We will write this in the key of Et> 

and fix our meter signature as 4. 

Now, who can think of a little tune for the first line? Catherine, 
you may try. Sing us your tune and I will write the numerals down 
so that we shall not forget them. Who else has a tune? James, 
you may sing your tune, and we will take that down in numerals, 
also. Now, who can finish Catherine's tune, and who can finish 
James'? (Tivo children respond with melodies.) Yes, they were both very 

good. (Teacher writes the numerals of the second verse in the same way.) 

Now let us write it out in notes, and we will sing the melody 

with strong accents, and James may put in the bars on the staff. 

Notice that between the words "calling" and "the" you seem to 

pause for breath, and that the word "the" seems to come in the 

same measure. How shall we adjust that? Yes, that is right. We 

will write the word "the" to an eighth note preceded by an eighth 

rest. How many notes are there in the last measure? (A child answers 

«two?) Where, then, is the other note to complete the measure? (JVo 

response.) Remember, in the beginning we started on an unaccented 

note. The rule is that this unaccented note at the beginning is to 

be counted into the incomplete measure at the end, and so we find 

that the third beat of the first measure is to be counted into the 

time value of the last measure. 

Let us take another stanza. This is a pretty one. 

"Where the pools are bright and deep, 
Where the gray trout lies asleep 
Up the river and o'er the lea, 
That's the way for Billy and me." 

Now, how do we hear this rhythm, in two, three, or four part? 



4 

(A child says "four pa, o Does anybody hear it differently?We might write 
it in two part rhythm, using the divided beat, and so we will try to 
make a tune both ways. 

We will first write it in four part rhythm. We will not fix the 
key until we have our tune, and then we will write it in whatever 
key we sing it. Now, who can make a tune for the first line? {Sarah 
sings a tune and ttie teacher writes out the numerals as before?) ^Vho can make a 

tune for the second line? Since there are four lines in all, we will sing 
the third line just like the first, and then we will finish it by making 
a new fourth line. That last melody was very good, and it seems 

to sound like the key of E|>. {Teacher inserts the correct key and meter sig- 
natures, and continues the lesson, as indicated before.) ,, 

Now, we will write it out in ^ time, with two sounds to one beat. 
This time we shall have to use the divided beat, or the dotted quarter 
and eighth note rhythm, because in scanning the lines, we find that 
two words in each beat are of unequal length. Then, what shall we 
do with the words "river and" in the third line, and the words "Billy 
and" in the fourth line? When we come to scan them, we find that 
these three syllables must come in quickly on one beat. When there 
are three sounds to one beat, the custom is to write a triplet in eighth 
notes, instead of two eighth notes, as the usual value. When we write 
the notes in this way we call them Triplets, and they look like 

this. {Teacher writes as in Illustration N° 2.) + 3 3 

We sing the three notes on one beat, with M. N9 2 (£^ QT T I* T T = 
just a little extra accent on the first note. 

In the same way, use the stanzas given below for later lessons on the subject. 
Read the words, giving- strong emphasis to the accented words to determine the rhythm, 
and let the children invent the melodies. Then write out on the blackboard, the 
numerals first, and afterwards the notes on the staff. Ask the children to sing 
the melody again and insert the bar-lines where the accents indicate they should come. 
Complete the song by putting in the rests, the flags on the eighth note stems, the 
triplets, double bars, etc. In four-line stanzas, it is well to repeat the same melody 
for the first and third lines. This suggestion is not always to be followed, but in 
general it is advisable to do this; thus, the first, second and fourth lines will have 
different melodies, and the third will be like the first. 

1 2 

"Tell me not, in mournful numbers, ' The day is cold, and dark, and dreary; 
Life is but an empty dream; It rains, and the wind is never weary; 

For the soul is dead that slumbers, The vine still clings to the mouldering wall, 
And thing's are not what they seem'.' But at every gust the dead leaves fall." 

3 4 

"Blessings on thee, little man "I know a place where the sun is like gold 

Bare-foot boy, with cheek of tan: And the cherry blooms burst with snow, 
With thy turned-up pantaloons, And down underneath is the lovliest spot 

And thy merry whistled tunes." Where the four-leaf clovers grow." 






Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 77 

l Class Letter and No 

Name ^ 

( Account No 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1 Trace the gradual development of melody writing from the beginning of the Kinder- 
garten Lessons to the present time 



2 Has the eye, the ear, or the hand, received the principal attention in the development 
of this course of training? 



, After the invention of melodies, what is the next step in developing the subject?. 







4 Name the eight points to be brought out in a lesson in melody writing. 



5- Give an extended model lesson on a stanza of your own choosing, presenting these 
eight points in their proper order 



If you are tenehlng at the present time, answer the question hclow which pertains 
to yonr Grade* in order to secure a percentage. If you are not teaching, It Is not necessary 
to answer either question. 

6 If you are teaching in the Sixth Grade, and can put the lesson in this particular part 
of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions given, 
as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular lesson, indi- 
cate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained. 



: 



Seventh and Eighth Grade teachers only, should answer the following questions: 

7 After you have carefully studied this lesson and have had the opportunity to apply 
the method in several lessons in the class, give a full and complete report of the re- 
sults you obtained, comparing this with the methods you have previously used for 



melody writing. 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q- 1 



Answer 



Q. 2.. 



Answer 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q. *.. 



Answer 



Q. 5., 



Answer 



SEVENTH GRADE SERIES 1 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC Lesson N° 78 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Forms of the Minor Scale 

In previous lessons, and in various ways, we have by this time learned a great 
deal about the major scale. In Lesson N*? 68, we learned all about the chromatic 
scale. There is, however, still another scale form often ufeed, which is known as the 
Minor Scale. We have often learned songs and exercises in minor keys which we 
sang without giving particular attention to the peculiar effect, or quality, of the 
key. But there was in all of them a certain sad or plaintive quality, which is charac- 
teristic of the minor scale or modeu 

We find that the scale which was the forerunner of the minor scale was first 
used in the period of early Greek Music to express sadness, sorrow, or depres- 
sion. There was a certain quality or characteristic to each of the scales which 
the Greeks employed, and the Aeolian, or forerunner of our minor scale, was the 
one used to express sadness. We do not use it in exactly the same form to-day, 
but in its main outlines our minor key is like the early Aeolian mode or scale. 

It is a curious fact that the early music of all primitive nations was sung in 
the minor mode, or key. The word "mode" in this connection simply means the gen- 
eral "manner," or kind of effect characteristic of the scale. The use of the minor 
mode by singers among all early peoples seems to have been the natural form of 
expression. The older Folk Songs o f all nations are nearly all written in the minor 
mode. Almost all music written before the Christian Era was written in the minor 
mode and it is interesting to note that the music of our American plantation songs, 
brought largely from Africa, and of nearly all our Indian songs, is also tinged with 
the melancholy, characteristic of the minor mode. It is important from many stand- 
points, therefore, that we become familiar with the minor scale. 

The minor scale begins and ends on the syllable La of the major scale. La 
thus becomes the foundation note of the minor scale and is called the "One'' or 
Tonic of that scale. Beginning on La the intervals are so arranged as to give a 

Copyright MCMXII by Sieffel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



plaintive and mournful effect. To realize this fully, play the pitch of F and call 
it Do; then sing- down to La, and from this point sing- an octave upward; that is, 
from lower La up to higher La, including the following syllables:- La, Ti, Do, Re, 
Mi, Fa, Sol, La. Notice carefully the peculiar, sad effect of this group of tones, and 
by singing it in many keys try to impress the quality and character of the mode 
on the pupils. 

There are three forms of the minor scale now in common use. The minor 
scale as it was just sung from La to La, using no other tones than are found in the 
major scale, is called the "Plain" or "Normal," or "Natural" minor scale. This 
form, as shown in Illustration N? 1, is found most frequently in the old Negro plan- 



tation melodies. 

111. N? 1- 



Whole step 
7-8 



m 



La Si Do Re Mi Fa Sol La 

As a result of the long-continued development of musical instinct and taste, 
the modern ear now demands a half step between the seventh and eighth tones of 
the scale (called the leading tone and the tonic), just as we have a half step be- 
tween Mi and Fa,_ which have in this scale the same relation to each other as 
the Ti and Do in the major scale. This is not correct according to modern har- 
monic standards, and the defect is remedied by using Sharp 5, or Si, thereby rais- 
ing this tone and producing a half step between the leading tone and the tonic. 
The scale thus formed by using Sharp 5, is called the Harmonic Minor Scale. This 
scale now becomes the following series of tones:- La,Ti, Do, Be, Mi, Fa, Si, La, 

as shown in Illustration N? 2. 

Half step 
7-8 



111. N? 2- 



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pp 



i £ 



La Ti Do Re Mi Fa Sol La 

Your pupils will find it very difficult to sing the interval from Fa to Si, or 
4 to Sharp 5, but this difficulty can be smoothed out by practice and drill on the 
skip from Sharp 5 to 6, as La Si La, and from 4 to 6, or Fa, Si, La. Give this 
lesson somewhat as follows: 

Now, children, let us sing 1 La, Si, La. {Children sing.) Now once 
more. This time we will sing La, Fa,La. Now Fa,La. Now sing 
La, Si, La, and then Fa, Si, La, and let us make sure that the tone 



for Si is exactly the same as when singing La, Si, La. Once more 
sing Fa, Si, La, and then let us sing from lower La up and make that 
skip accurately. That was good. Now we will sing it in two or 
three other keys. 

This long awkward jump from 4 to Sharp 5, or from Fa to Si, is not melodious, 
and, therefore, the 4, or Fa, is also sometimes sharped, thus becoming Fi: This 
form of scale is called the Melodic Minor Scale. The series of tones in this ' scale 
is as follows:- LctyTijDo^ejMi, Fi,Si,La. This form of the minor scale is also 
exceedingly difficult to sing, unless it is simplified by finding a likeness (see Lesson 
N? 69) in the now familiar major scale. Observe that the series Mi, Fi,Si,La sounds 
exactly like our Sol, La,Ti, Do. By comparing them and singing both a number of 
times, as suggested in Lesson N9 69, the progression becomes perfectly simple. 
Another way is to sing upward from lower La to Mi. At this point change the syl- 
' • lable to Sol and, -being sure that the tone is exactly the same, continue with Sol, 
La, Ti, Do. Sing this again, and then,having drilled carefully on the proper sound 
of these tones, sing directly upward from lower La to upper La without change of 
syllable name, the syllables La,Ti,Do,Re,Mi, Fi,Si, La. In Illustration N9 3 we 
give this progession Sol,La, Ti, Do and use the same pitches for the required names 
in the Melodic Minor Scale. 



111. N9 




Sol La Ti Do 



In Illustration N? 4 the Melodic Minor Scale is given complete,using Sharp 4 
and Sharp 5. 



111. N9 4 



I 



it 



i 



W 



La Ti Do Re Mi Fi Si La 



Give such exercises as the following, all of which are in the minor mode. Study 
carefully the effect which this scale produces. 



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The song-. "Home Longing" given below, is a three-part song, and should be 
presented in the manner suggested in Lessons Nos. 75 and 76; also give due at- 
tention to the dynamics or expression marks employed. The letter "/" stands for 
the Italian word forte, which means loud. The letters "w/" mean mezzo-forte, 
or, literally translated "half-loud" The letter u p" stands for the word piano, which 
means soft. Give particular attention to the contrast demanded in the 3rd and 4th 
measures, where the "echo" is to be sung very softly as indicated by p. 

HOME LONGING 

Andante , ^— ^ f\ 



FOXWELL 



OLD GERMAN 



£ 



te=fe& 



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=**= 



E 



l.How longmust I be es-tranged 

2. No charm for ab - sence can make 

3. No joys for me like the 



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joys 



from thee, My Home - land, My 
a - mends, O Home - land, 
of old, My Home - land, My 






;. | i a J' 



{Echo) 



- ^H-J 



^ /'N f/l' % 



■ r r ■ p ' r 



JE 



Home - land? Thy hills and thy val 
Home - land! Tho' much to de- light 
Home - land! No rest like the rest 



leys in dreams still I see, And 
me my course here at - tends, My 
of the dear youth-ful fold, O 



i t 1 1 j i j' J j> j> I j ji i J ' j' 



i 



SE 



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/7\ 



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F r j ' "r ^ 

to be, My Home - land! 

ly friends, Dear Home - land! 

grow cold, My Home - land! 



F=Ff 



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long once a -gain in tny 
heart still re -turns to my 
nev - er for thee will my 



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Vi/ 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 78 

t Class Letter and No 

Name -J 

( Account No 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1 State briefly what you have learned about the construction and use of the major scale. 



2 State briefly what you have learned about the construction and use of the minor scale. 



3 What is the characteristic quality of the minor scale?. 



4 Give the definition of the word "mode," as used in connection with scale formations. 

zzzzzzzzzzzzz::::::::::: 

5 Discuss fully the fact that the music of the primitive nations was always in the minor 

mode 
(In answering this question, give your own opinion and state as many facts as possible 
to support this opinion.) 



6 What is the Pentatonic Scale?. 



:.;:..; 



7 Discuss the relationship which exists between the music of the American Indians and 
the American Negroes 



8 On what syllable and number name of the major scale does the minor scale begin and 

end ? 

9 Give a short model lesson indicating the relation between the formation of the major 

scale and the minor scale 



10 Give on the staff below an example of the Natural minor scale. 



$ 



1 1 Do you find it difficult to sing ? 

12 Give on the staff below an example of the Harmonic minor scale, and explain the dif- 

ference between this form and the natural minor 



♦ 



13 Outline briefly the manner in which the interval of the augmented second at the 6th 
and 7th steps of the scale can be sung correctly, giving emphasis to the fundamental 
principle on which the drill is based 



2 



14 Give on the staff below an example of the Melodic minor scale. 




IS Give a short model lesson explaining how the two new tones of the scale may be taught. 



16 Explain .what the following terms of musical notation mean : 

F 

Mf 

P 



If yon are teaching at the present time, answer the question below which pertains 
to yonr Grade, In order to secure a percentage. If you are not teaching, It Is not necessary 
to answer either question. 

17 If you are teaching in the Sixth Grade, and can put the lessons in this particular part 
of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions given, 
as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular lesson, indi- 
cate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained 






Seventh and Eighth Grade teachers only, should answer the following questions : 

18 Outline the method which you have used in presenting the minor scales to your class. 



19 Cive on the staff below one short exercise in a minor key which shall include the 



melodic minor form. 




20 Name two points which you have learned in this lesson, which have been of particular 
value to you in your presentation of the minor scales 



3 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. l 



Answer 



Q. 2. 



Answer 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q. 4. 



Answer 



Q. S. 



Answer 



SEVENTH GRADE SERIES J 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N9 79 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

How to Treat the Changing Voice 

In the Seventh Grade we come to a real change of conditions in our voice 
work and music study. If the children have progressed regularly through the grades 
they are now an average of thirteen years old. We found in the latter part of the 
Sixth Grade that some of the boys' voices were changing and that it was necessary 
to put them permanently in the group singing in the lower part. In the early months 
of the Seventh Grade the teacher will find that there are a great many boys whose 
voices have changed, or are approaching the changing period. 

The girls' voices change too, although it is not quite so perceptible in their 
case. The changes, however, are real ones. Many girls who, up to this time, have 
been able to sing high as well as low, now find their voices deepening and growing 
full and strong. They find that they can sing the lower part more easily than 
the upper part, and generally prefer to do this. However, it is not always safe 
to permit a child to choose his own part, because he sometimes wishes to sing in 
one part or another because a friend is singing in that part, or because his mother 
or someone else has said he should sing one or the other part, regardless of whether 
or not his voice is adapted for that part. 

The only way clearly to determine a child's fitness for one part or the other 
is by a careful and individual test of the voices at the beginning of the Seventh 
Grade. If the children have done all the individual work assigned, from the Kinder- 
garten up to this point, they will have no hesitation about rising and singing the 
scale alone. If certain children are timid, they should be tested after school hours, 
when the room is quiet and they are alone with the teacher. 

In the test for the sopranos, all voices should be able to sing F on the fifth 
line of the staff, clear and true. If the last two or three tones seem to "pull out 
of the throat" and are forced and thin, the child should sing a middle part. In the 
test for the lowest part, the child should be able to sing with good, mellow tones 
down to A or G below middle C. Place in the third part all boys with changing 

Copyright MCMXII by Sieg-el- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



2 

voices and those girls who have a low, rich quality of voice. The children who 
can sing- neither so high nor so low as in the two outer divisions, should be grouped 
in the middle part. 

The boys' voices require special care at this point. Let them begin to sing 
lower as soon as the voices show any sign of a break. As a general rule, it is best 
to keep the boys singing high as long as possible, so as to use the entire register 
of the voice as long as it is available. In some schools they are placed in the lower 
part permanently very early, and before their voices show any sign of a break . 
This is a very grave mistake and tends to make the voices coarse and rough. The 
tone quality of large choruses has often been ruined by the injudicious placing of 
the boys' voices. Keep them in the soprano, whenever that part falls to their divi- 
sion, just as long as possible, thus allowing them to sing both high and lowas before. 
There is a fascination in singing the lower part in part songs and exercises, and 
many boys want to sing in the lower part all the time. While this is natural, it 
should not be permitted until the condition of the voice demands it. 

When voices show signs of breaking, which will be evident in both speech and 
reading, place them at once in the lower part for all the singing of both songs and 
exercises. Caution the boys to sing very softly at all times. Tell them that the 
vocal chords are inflamed because of a rapid growth in size, so that their voices may 
become deeper, and this growth will show by and by in the so called "Adam's Apple" 
in men's throats. Be sympathetic and serious in talking to them about the matter 
and do not treat it as a joke. Tell them that by taking care now in singing, read- 
ing, speaking and shouting on the playgrounds and at the ball games, they will 
have agreeable, resonant voices when they grow up to be men, and by way of ex- 
ample call attention to the harsh, ugly voices of men who probably were not warned 
to take proper care of their vocal organs at the critical period in their lives. 

Unless there is a great deal of inflammation of the vocal chords present, which 
condition is easily detected in the quality of speech, it will do no harm for the boys 
to sing right through the changing period, or at least with only short intermissions, 
if they are careful to sing softly and lightly and absolutely without strain. The 
moment a boy shows undue straining of the muscles of the throat in the effort to 
produce tone, a condition evidenced by contracted muscles of the face and complaint 
of pain or tension in the throat, he should cease singing at once; he should also be 
warned not to use his voice to excess in any way, whether out of doors, in the 
school room, or at home. 

At this time, therefore, there is no valid reason for the boys to miss the music 
lesson, as is the custom in some schools. They can at least read the lesson silently 
p. s. M. N? 79 



and keep up the interest by watching and listening- to the general class work. How- 
ever, there is one final means for keeping up the interest among such boys and this 
is to form a Whistling Division. There is no better tone placing drill than whistling, 
since it brings the tone directly to the front of the mouth. Furthermore, when the 
boys are unable to keep the pitch in singing (and this is often the case), they will 
whistle in perfect tune. It is evidently an easier and more natural means of pro- 
ducing tone, and so they can get more perfect results in pitch; also they enjoy the 
whistling immensely and in many songs it lends a pleasing variety and interest to the 
singing of the class. All boat songs, bird songs and waltz songs are pretty when 
whistled, and many patriotic songs are made more attractive when some of the boys 
whistle the melody. 

In grouping the children for this whistling division, place enough of the lower 
sopranos in the third part, to sing the words plainly, and then let the whistlers carry 
the melody with this small help. At first, permit all the boys to whistle the melody- 
The smaller boys who are having no difficulty with their voices will, of course, do 
it much better than the others, and so will help until the older ones gain confidence 
in themselves. Then place the smaller boys, with the unchanged voices, in the sop- 
rano and alto parts as before, leaving only the larger ones with the voice trouble in 
the whistling division. 

Drill on the songs in the usual way, as outlined in previous lessons. At the 
first attempt, it will seem a great joke and occasion much merriment, but when all 
have enjoyed a good laugh at the novelty, in which the teacher may well join, the 
class should settle down to the business of making the whistling a real part of the 
work. You will find that the boys take great pride in their share of the singing, 
and will use every effort to make their part pleasing. They thus become a help, 
not a hindrance in the music hour. 

"A Song of the Hills" printed below, should be used entirely as a whistlingpiece. 
Observe that there are no words whatsoever, and the two parts can share alike in 
the enjoyment of the whistling exercise. 

A SONG OF THE HILLS 



OLD GERMAN 




In the song "Coming of Spring" assign the lower part to the whistling divi- 
sion, and drill on the song in the usual manner. 



COMING OF SPRING 



Allegro 
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m 



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J. A. B. 



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n 



rn 



f=*=f 



1. -pen your win -dows and o - pen your hearts! Spring-time is com-ing and 

2. O -pen your win-dows and o - pen your hearts! Spring-time is com-ing and 

3. O- pen your win-dows and o - pen your hearts! Spring-time is com-ing and 



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win-ter de- parts! Old win- ter, he wish-es to be let out, And 
win-ter de-parts! Now here at the town-gate young Spring is near, So 
win-ter de-parts! The Spring now is here, and he will come in, He 



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i^^ 



rf r f ; r > ; i "i j g < ; ■ ■ o r 1 1 



i 



all thro' the house he goes trip-ping a -bout, His old grey cloak to his 

give poor old Win-ter a tug by the ear, And pluck his old beard of 

comes with sweet mu-sic and mer - ry din; He's rap-ping and tap -ping with 



si 



— ^ * J. s r * 



E 



i P I 



J i 1 Ji 1 M n |h NpmM ,' ■ ' i 



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breast he strains, He's scrap-ing to- geth-er his fro - zen gains, 

hoar -y grey, For that is the mer-ry young fel - low's way. 
main and might, And ring- ing with flow- er - bells blue and white. 



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Model Music Course" Permission of American Book Co. 







Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 79 

( Class Letter and No 

( ■ 



Name 

! Account No, 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

t What condition of voice will the teacher find among the pupils of the Seventh Grade? 



2. Give a very careful statement of the manner in which the teacher should treat this 
condition of change of voice among lhe boys of the class 



3. How do the changed voices of the girls show at this time?. 



4 Why should the teacher not always be guided by the child's wishes in regard to the 
part which they are to sing ? Discuss fully 



5. What is the only way to determine the child's fitness for one part or another? 





_ 

C. What should he the range and quality of the voices in the three different parts at this 



,ime ? 

Upper part 

Middle part 

Lower part 

7. Why should the boys be kept singing high as long as possible?. 



8. Discuss the probable results where the boys are put into the lower part too early. 



9. Discuss again and more fully the manner in which the teacher should explain to the 
children the cause of the change of voice and the necessity for careful treatment 



10. How can the teacher detect an undue strain in the use of the voice?. 



II. Under what conditions is it unnecessary for the boys to stop their singing during the 
period of change of voice? 



12. What is the best possible drill to use as a means of keeping up the boys' interest at this 



time? 

■ 



13. Explain fully how the use of the whistling division can be made a simple and natural 
part of the singing lesson 



14. Why is it most important that the use of whistling be introduced in a natural manner? 



If yon are teaching at the present time, «n«wer the question below which pertains to 
jour Grade, In order to secure a percentage. It you are not teaching. It la not neceaaary 
to answer either qnestlon. 

15, If you are teaching in the Seventh Grade, and can put the lesson in this particular part 
of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions given, 
as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular lesson, indi- 



cate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained. 



Highlit Grade teachers only, should answer the following questions: 
16. (a) Give a complete report of the manner in which you have heretofore met the prob- 



lem of the change of voice in your class. 



(b) State two reasons why the methods suggested in this lesson are more simple and 
effective than those which you have used, if this is the case. 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 



Answer 



Q. 2. 



Answer 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q. 4. 





Answer 



Q. S. 



Answer 



.SEVENTH GRADE SERIES 



SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 



A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 
PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC 
BY FRANCES E. CLARK. 



Lesson N9 80 



Tone Work 



The tone work which was begun in the latter part of tha Sixth Grade, should 
be continued with reviews of the drills suggested in Lessons Nos. 73 and 75. Insist 
that the pupils get the proper position of the mouth for the vowel sounds. To assist 
in getting these proper formations of the mouth or lip positions it will be of ad 
vantage to present them to the pupils in a new way as follows: 

{Teacher blows "A" on the pitch pipe.) Now, children sing- lower Do 
{Children sing.) Now close the lips and hum lightly up the scale from 
Do to Sol, holding the M between the lips with the teeth slightly a- 
jar. On reaching Sol, you may part the lips and let the tone out 
out on the syllable "Mee." This series of notes should be one con- 
tinuous tone, and you should think the sound of the syllable Mee 
all the way up from Do to Sol. On reaching Sol you may simply let 
out the tone on the sound of Mee lightly, but clearly. {Children sing as 
in illustration N9 l) . 



111. N9 1; 



TT 



f^ 



€J Blow on 

pitch pipe M . . . mee 

Now, children, sing low Do again and then we will call Do, Mi, 
and sing Mi, Fa. '{Children sing.) Now Fa will become a new Do, and then 
we will sing upward as we did before, only a half step higher this time, 
and bring out the syllable Mee on the last note. Now sing low Do, 
then call it Mi as we did before. Sing Mi, Fa, and then call Fa, Do. 
Now hum upward again to Sol, and then come out clearly with the 
syllable Mee. {Children sing as shown in Illustration No 2.) 

flfe 



111. N? 2 g J 



■g: ^:\>7T XT 

Do Do Mi Fa Do 



P 



M 



- - mee. 



Copyrig-ht MCMXII by Sieg-el- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



2 

Continue this exercise in this same manner, that is, huming Do-Sol from each 
new Do, and opening out on the last tone with Mee, until C, above middle C is 
reached. Now return to the pitch of lower A, and hum as before from Do to Sol. 
This time open on Sol with the syllable Mali. Come up the scale a half step at a 
time for each new Do, and sing- as before, opening the tone on Mah and returning 
again to Do. Again, hum from Do to Sol in the same manner to give an opening 
on the syllable Mo. See that the teeth are far enough apart to admit the middle 
finger sideways while the lips are close enough to touch the finger on all sides. 

Now carry the humming of the syllable "Mo" to the fourth space, or E. Then 
sound lower G, and hum as before from Do to Sol, opening the tone this time on 
the syllable Mah. For the vowel sound "Ah',' your teeth must be wide enough apart 
to admit two fingers of the hand sidewise. Open the mouth wide and freely with 
a loose jaw. Hum as before from each successive half step, carrying the pitch up 
to G or A above the staff. All of these exercises are given in Illustration N9 3, 
and by careful study of Illustrations Nos. 2 and 3 you will get a very clear idea 
of the successive advances in pitch, as well as of the correct use of the vowel sounds 



ILLUSTRATION N9 3. 




Blow on 
pitch pipe 

' ■ M 



mee M - - - mee 

may M - - - may 



M mee M - 

M may M - 



- mee. 

- may. 




^jJl4h.]jj^fA]jJJJ| ( &JJJJJ 



M - - mee M - - mee 
M - - may M - - may 



M - - mee M - - mee M - - mee. 

M - - may M - - may M - - may. 




^m$m$^§j!m^ 



M - - mo M - - mo M - - mo M - - mo M - - mo M - - mo. 

M - - mah M - - mah M - - mah M - - mah M - - mah M - - mah. 



tfyijjjJJ^ jjJJJ ^ 




M - - - mo 

M - - - mah 



M- - 


■ mo 


M- - 


- mo 


M- - ■ 


mah 


M- - 


- mah 


p. s. ■*• I*" "° 









M. 

M- 



m<> 
mah 



mo. 
mah. 




exercises 



Now give middle C on the pitch pipe, and combine all of these vowel 
by singing slowly, softly, and carefully, the vowel sounds Ee,Ay, Ah, Oh,Oo,on each 
of the scales. Watch closely to see that the position of the mouth is correct for each* 
vowel sound in succession, and gradually work up the pitch of the exercises from 
low Do to high Do. This is a splendid limbering up exercise and gives excellent 
drill for developing flexibility of the muscles of the throat and jaw, as well as the 
cultivation of correct habits of tone placing and enunciation. It is also as valuable 
in reading as in singing, since it emphasizes, through exaggeration, the correct 
position of the lips for getting the proper sounds. This exercise is shown in Illus- 
tration N. 4. (For photographs showing these correct lip positions see Lessens 
Nos. 13, 14 and 15.) 

ILLUSTRATION N? 4 



~o~ 



Ee- Ay-Ah-Oh-Oo, Ee • Ay- Ah - Oh -Oo, Ee - Ay- Ah-Oh-Oo. 



i 



"PC 



3T 



1 



Ee - Ay - Ah - Oh - Oo, etc. 

Another very effective exercise is to sing, with the syllable Mee, short runs 
of a third in the scale both up and down. In starting on Do, the run would be Do 
Re, Mi, Re, Do. Starting with Mi, the syllables in the run would be Mi, Fa, Sol 
Fa,Mi. Others which can be used are Fa, Sol, La, Sol, Fa; Sol,La,Ti,La,Sol; La 
Ti, Do, Ti, La; and Ti,Do,Re,Do,Ti. These groups are shown below in Illustra 
tion N? 5. Sing these runs very lightly and quickly with different vowel sounds 
Start the first of each group with the letter "M" and continue the toneinone long, 
smooth vowel sound for the entire run, as Mah - - -, Moo - - - etc. 

ILLUSTRATION Ng 5 




No subject is of more importance in singing - than good enunciation. Concert, 
opera and church singers, one and all, with but few exceptions, mouthe and murder 
the words they sing, past all understanding. There is absolutely no necessity for 
this as the English" language can be properly and beautifully pronounced if suffi- 
cient pains are taken with it. Children should be taught early to say the words 
of their songs plainly and distinctly, and especially should the final consonants be 
given much care. One drill for this that is most excellent for the exercise of the 
lips, tongue and teeth, is to pantomine the words of some familiar song or poem, 
making an exaggerated effort in the enunciation to make the words understood with- 
out uttering a sound. In such songs as "Mary of Argyle," "My Pretty Jane," "Old 
Kentucky Home," "Year's at the Spring,'' and many others, let the class give you 
the words in pantomine, that is, not by whispering, but by entire absence of vocal 
pronunciation, with the effort centered entirely in the effective movement of the lips. 

Watch closely at all times, and insist that the class make every effort for clear 
enunciation. Select some girls who read particularly well, and let them stand be- 
fore the class and pantomine familiar songs by merely moving their lips, which 
the class must guess by closely reading their lips. Make it a point at all times 
lhat the boys, as well as the girls, speak plainly but without undue stress: boys 
and girls alike must give equal attention to a correct and cultured enunciation. 

The following song should be taught with the principles in mind which have 
been outlined in this lesson. 

MUSIC 

Moderate German air 



fP 



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1. Soft, soft, mu-sic is steal -ing, Sweet, sweet lin -gers the strain; 

2. Join, join, chil-dren of sad -ness, Send, send sor - row a -way; 

3. Sweet, sweet mel-o-dy's num-bers,Hark! Hark! gent-ly they swell, 



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Loud, loud, now it is peal -ing, Wak - ing the ech-oes a - gain; 
Now, now, changing to glad - ness, War - ble a beau - ti - ful lay. 
Deep, deep, wak- ing from slum-bers Thoughts in the mem-'ry that dwell. 



£33 



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Yes, yes, 
Yes, yes, 
Yes, yes, 



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yes, 
yes, 

yes, 



yes, 
yes, 
yes, 



Wak - ing the ech - oes a - gain 

War - ble a beau - ti - ful lay 

Thoughts in the mem-'ry that dwell 



* 



TT^ 



m 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 80 

L ( Class Letter and No 

Vame J 

{ Account No 



Town State Percentage. 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 



1, Give a general discussion of the necessity for tone work in this particular period. 



In what way does the proper position of the mouth aid in this drill?. 



3. Give on the staves below four exercises which may be used to secure proper vowel enun- 
ciation 



4. Explain in your own words exactly the manner in which the pitch of such exercises as in 
Illustrations Nos. 2 and 3 of this lesson, is raised successive half steps 



: 



5. Which in your opinion are the most valuable vowel sounds for such drill ? 

6. Why is it desirable to emphasize correct enunciation and tone placing in this exercise? 

7. Why should particular emphasis he placed upon the shape of the lips in giving such ex- 

ercises as contained in Illustration No. 4 of this lesson? 



8. In what way does the exercise given in Illustration No. 3 aid in securing a light, flexible 
quality of tone? 



'.). Why should these be practiced with the vowel sounds, as shown in Illustration No. 5, 
rather than with the consonant "M" sound, as shown in Illustration No. 3? Discuss 
fully 



10. What is the value of the pantomime drill, outlined on Page 4 of the lesson?. 



11. Give a short model lesson on this subject, using the words of some familiar poem. 









12. Discuss the opportunity of the teacher of singing in the public schools to improve the 
ideals of cultured pronunciation among the American people 



13, What do you feel you have contributed to your pupils' improvement in this respect? 



If yon lire teaching; at the present time answer the queHtlon below which pertain* to 
your Grade. In order to secure a percentage. I' >•►" are ntit teaching;, It la not necessary 
fo answer either question, 

14. If you are teaching in the Seventh Grade, and can put the lesson in this particular part 
of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions given, 
as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular lesson, indi- 



cate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained. 



Eighth Grade teachers only, should answer the following questions: 
(a) Give a report of the success you have had in using the tone drills suggested in 
these lessons. Do not make out this report until you have had the opportunity of 



testing these drills for a period of at least two weeks. 



(b) Give on the staves below, three tone drills of your own choosing, ivhich you think 
are equal, if not superior, to those outlined in this lesson 



(c) Give two reasons for your choice of these exercises. 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 



Q. 1. 



•Answer 



■ 



■ - 



Q. 2.. 



Answer 



Q. 3.. 






Answer 



Q. 4.. 



Answer 



Q. 5. 



Answer 



SEVENTH GRADE SERIES | 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N9 81 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

The Minor Scale 

In Lesson N? 78 we studied the various forms of the minor scale. We found 
that there are three kinds of scales in the minor mode. We learned, first, the Nat- 
ural Minor in which only the tones of the major scale are used, starting- and ending 
on La. Then we learned about the Harmonic Minor, in which nearly the same scale 
tones are used, but Sharp 7 or Si is substituted for the seventh tone of the scale. 
In the Melodic Minor we found still another form, in which Sharp 6 or Fi was also 
used. However, all of these different kinds of scales were grouped together as belong- 
ing to the minor mode. 

When these minor scales were first used, they were considered as separate and 
distinct modes, but they finally came to be regarded as belonging in a general way to 
the major scale and related to it. There seemed to be no way of indicating the dif- 
ferent minor scales by separate signatures, and so, because they employ largely the 
same tones as the major scales, they are grouped under the same key signatures. Each 
major key, therefore, is said to have its relative minor, which simply means that the 
minor scale uses all of the common, or family tones of the major scale that it is pos- 
sible to use. This is not, however, considered as strong a relationship as it once 
was, and we are now coming to think of the minor scale as possessing an independent 
individuality of its own. However, because of the close connection in tones between 
the major and minor modes, we must still study the key signatures for the minor 
scales in conjunction with the major keys. Illustration N9 1 shows the close rela- 
tionship, in actual scale tones used, between A major and its relative minor scales. 

,, - ^, Relative Minors of C Major - 

G Major / A Minor A A Minor- Harmonic jbS 



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Copyright MCMXII by Sieg«l-Myers Correspondence School of Music 



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Let us take, for instance, the key of C, as shown in Illustration N? 1. Sing 
down from Do to La, and you will find that this is the tonic or"home-tone" of the 

minor .scale. This minor scale uses the same tones as in the scale of C major 

hence its relationship. La of the key of C falls on the note A, and, therefore, this 
scale is called the A minor scale. We say that A minor is the relative minor of the 
key of C, and, by the same token, it will have neither sharps nor flats in the signature. 

In the key of G we count down to La, and we find that it falls upon E . The rel- 
ative minor of the key of G is, therefore, the key of E minor. This key if E minor 
will have the signature of one sharp_the same as G major. This relationship is shown 
in Illustration N? 2. 



111. N? 2 



G Major 



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■ Relative Minors of G Major ■ 
E Minor +..■!> Minor- Harmonic form' 



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In the key of D, we count down to La, and find that it falls on B. The relative 
minor of the key of D major, therefore, is B minor. B minor will have the signature 
of two sharps, like D major. The relationship between these two scales, and also the 
melodic form of the minor scale (instead of the harmonic) is shown in Illustration N? 3. 



111. N? 3 




D Major 



-Relative Minors of J) Major- 
B Minor * ,,JS Minor -Melodic form^ 



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This table of signatures can be continued as follows: 

In the key of A, La falls on F sharp. F sharp minor is, therefore, the relative 

minor of the key of A, and has the same signature of three sharps. 

In the key of E, La falls on C sharp. C sharp minor is, therefore, the relative 

minor of the key of E, and has the same signature of four sharps. 

In the key of F, La falls on D. D minor is, therefore, the relative minor of the 

key of F, and has the same signature of one flat. 

In the key of B flat, La falls on G. G minor is, therefore, the relative minor of 

the key of B flat major, and has the same signature of two flats. 

In the key of E flat, La falls on C. C minor is, therefore, the relative minor of 

the key of E flat major, and has the same signature of three flats. 

In the key of A flat, La falls on F. F minor is, therefore, the relative minor of 

the key of A flat major, and has the same signature of four flats. 



P. S. M. No. 81. 



This relationship between the major and minor scales and their key signatures 
can be presented to the class in the manner indicated. Write on the board the tables 
as shown in the following- illustration, and, to give variety to the exercise, use the 
minor scales in their various forms. Ask the pupil to determine which of the three 
forms_natural, harmonic, or melodic_is employed in each case. (See latter part of 
each line of the illustration.) 
111. N? 4 

*n W A Major _^_ Aa $ Ftf Minor-Melodic form 




do ti la 



C§ Minor (Natural form) 




J?l> Major 



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G Minor ( W]iich form?) 

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C Minor ( Which form?) 



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A\> Minor {Wfiich form?) 



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There is one other development of the minor scale which should be mentioned 
here. This is what is called the Tonic minor. By using the major key and lower- 
ing the 3rd note (Flat 3), the tonic minor scale is formed. When the 3rd and the 
6th of the scale are lowered, the form is that of the harmonic minor. If Flat 3 is 
used in the key of C major, it becomes the Tonic minor of C. If Flat 3 and 
Flat 6 are used the scale becomes the harmonic form of C minor. This tonic minor 

is in some ways more closely related to the major key than is the relative minor and, 

in fact, is by some theorists considered to be the related minor key. 

The whole subject of the minor scale becomes very simple when presented 

in this manner, and its various forms, instead of being complicated, become easy 

to understand. 



The following song- can be used to illustrate the lesson on the minor mode. 



THE LAST DAYS OF AUTUMN 

J. C. PERCIVAL Adapted RUSSIAN MELOUY 

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1. Now thegrow-ing year is o - ver, And the shepherd's tink -ling bell, 

2. Now the mist is on the mountains, Red-d'ning in the ris - ing sun; 



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Faint - ly from its win - ter cov-er, Rings a low fare - well. 
Now the flow'rs a - round the fountains Per - ish one by one. 



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Now the birds of au-tumn shiv- er, Where the withered beechleaves quiver, 
Not a spire of grass is grow-ing, But the leaves that late were growing 



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O er the dark and laz - y riv - er, In the rock - y 
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Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 81 




Name. 



j Class Letter and No. 
( Account No 



Town State. 



Percentage. 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 



J. estate briefly the three kinds of minor scales in use at present, and give the character- 
istics of each 



2. Discuss fully the relationship between the major and minor modes. 



3. What constitutes the bond between the major and its relative minor key! 



4. How has the minor scale come to possess an individuality of its own apart from its 
relationship to the major scale? 



5. Wherein lies the close connection between the major and minor modes?. 



(i. Illustrate,' on the staves Below, the relationship between D major and B minor, (three 
forms), as shown in Illustrations Nos. 1, 3 and :s of this lesson 



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7. (a) On the staff below, write the scale of A major and its relative harmonic minor. 



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(b) On the staff below, write the scale of G major and its relative natural minor. 



$ 



(c) On the staff below, write the scale of B Mat major and its relative melodic minor. 



I 



(d) On the staff below write the scale of D flat major and its relative harmonic 



# 



8. What is the tonic minor?. 



!). Write on the staves below the tonic minors of f lie following keys.— G major, A major, 
P major and C major 






10. Have you memorized the song "The Last Days of Autumn"?. 



II. What success have you had in presenting it to your class?. 



If ><mi are teaeliliiK at the present lime, (Hirer <he uuenUon below m1iI.Ii oertnliiN to 
roar Grade) in order to ■eenre h percentage*. If .von nre not teaehlaK, It In not ■eeenarj 
to aiiMiver either qneMtlon. 

12. If you are teaching in the Seventh Grade, and can put the lesson in this particular part 
of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions given, 
as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular lesson, indi- 
cate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained 

Eighth Grade teachers only should answer the following questions: 
13. (a) Give in detail any difficulty which yon find in presenting the subject of minor 
scales to the class 

(b) Hare yon ever used the natural minor scale? If so, explain how you presented the 
subject. • 

(c) After presenting this lesson and Lesson No. 78 to your class, give a report of your 
success with such exercises as given in Illustration No. 4 

3 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1. • 



Answer 



Q. 2. 



Answer 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q. 4. 



Answer 



Q. S. 



Answer 



SEVENTH GRADE SERIES 



SIEGEL-MYERS 



Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 



A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 
PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC 
BY FRANCES E. CLARK 



Lesson N° 82 



Transposition 



Occasionally we find that some of our songs change 



Bo 



Ti — G\>- 



from one key to another. Having learned the key signatures, 
as given in Lesson N? 65, and the names, places, and relation 3 
of chromatic tones forming a chromatic scale, as given in La 
Lessons Nos. 61 to 70, it is time now that we should learn, just Le 
why, for instance,one sharp is the sign of the key of G, etc. m 

To present this in the clearest possible way, draw a & 
picture of our old scale ladder (see Lesson N? 32) on the ^ 
blackboard, or on a piece of bristol board, 36 inches long and ^ 
6 inches wide, covering two octaves in length, going from G 
above the staff down to G below the staff. (See Illustration & 
N9 l.) Name the lines now with the letter, or pitch names Be 
beginning on the lowest line with the tone G. Then, with Bal . 
the colored crayon, put in the intermediate tones, or chro- Do 
matic tones, and give them letter names. On the right hand R 
side of the ladder, write the names of the syllables used in ^ 
. the ascending scale, and on the left hand side, write the ^ 
names of the syllables used in the descending scale. 

We found in Lesson N? 67 that in the ascending scale, | 
we write the note C», etc., but in the descending scale, the Sol 
same pitch is called D flat, and thus we learn that Cjt and Se |_ D t 
D flat are one and the same tone. The tone aboveD is called ^ 
both D sharp and E flat. The tone above F is called F ^ 
sharp and G flat. Above G, the first tone is G sharp and 
A flat, and above A it is both A sharp and B flat. Continue 
in a similar manner up to G above the staff, and frommiddle 
C down to lower G. Two octaves of this scale, including &* 
all chromatic tones, are shown in Illustration N? 1. Do 

Copyright MCMXII by Sie^l-Myers Correspcdenoe Schoo. of Music 



Fj»- 



Now prepare a piece of pasteboard, or bristol board, eighteen inches long 
and six inches wide. By drawing lines, make of this another tone ladder one oc- 
tave in length, instead of two as suggested before. The lines will be exactly the 
same width apart as on the larger scale ladder on the blackboard; they are usu- 
ally placed three inches for the whole step and one and one half inches for the 
half step. Number these steps of the ladder 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and write also 
the syllable names Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do. This movable scale ladder 
should look like Illustration N? 2. 

111. N<? 2 
8 Du 



7 Ti 1 



6 La 



5 Sol 



A Far 



3 Mi 



■ 2 Re - 



1 Do 



This little scale ladder represents the pattern of the regular major scale, 
and all major scales must be constructed according to it. If the tones do not fall 
correctly, others must be substituted until the correct pattern is obtained. Now, 
let us see how this pattern fits in the scale of C. If we place the scale ladder on the 
ladder of pitches given in Illustration N9 1, letting Do rest on middle C, we find 
that the half step at 3 and 4 just meets the half step between E and F, and that the 
half step at 7 and 8 just fits the half step between B and C. Therefore, as it is 
not necessary to use any intermediate tones, we find that in the key of C no sharps 
or flats are used in the signature. 

rl S . M . No . 82 



Now move the little tone ladder down and let Do rest on the pitch G. By 
comparing- the two this time we find that the half step at 3 and 4 just fits between 
B and C; but for the half step between 7 and 8 we discover trouble at once. The 
pitch F comes half way between 6 and 7, and will not do at all for 7, or Ti. We 
are compelled to substitute F sharp for F to give the proper tone for Ti of the 
scale; and so whenever we place Do on G, or in other words use the key of G, 
we use F sharp instead of F. We, therefore, hang up the sharp once and for all on 
the F line in the signature, and let it tell that we must use one sharp in this key, 
and so are singing- in the key of G. 

Move the tone ladder again, and place Do on D. By comparing- the orig-inal 
model with the steps as we now find them, it is plain that we shall have to use both 
F sharp and C sharp to make our scale perfect. Conversely, we know that when we 
see two sharps in the signature, we are singing- in the key of D. These sharps are 
put in their proper places on the staff and hold good throughout the song or exer- 
cise, F sharp and C sharp being substituted for F and C wherever they occur, un- 
less cancelled by a natural. 

The following study should be used as a whistling exercise, as suggested in 
Lesson N? 79. The song "The Moon" should be taught as indicated in previous les- 
sons with reference to rhythm, chromatics, three-part singing, and enunciation. 

A STUDY 



GERMAN FOLK SONG 



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THE MOON 



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SILCHER 



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1. In sil - v ry splen-dor beam-ing-, She smiles a -long the sky, Bright 

2. She notes each wea - ry toil - er, And bids his eye -lids close, She 

3. Oh! Thou whose hand hath giv - en To us that plan -et bright, Must 



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stars, like dia - monds gleaming", To light her course on high! With 

wraps the earth in slum-ber, And brings it sweet re - pose. With 

look on man from Heav-en, And in his joys de - light. For 



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mod - est face o'er - shroud-ed, A - while from hu - man sight' She 
cool re - fresh -ing breez-es She wakes the soul to joy, And 
all those joys we thankThee,They each are sent in love, And 



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roams, then all un - cloud - ed Shines forth with cheer - ing light! 

nought but bliss -ful dream-ings Our tran-quil hearts em - ploy. 

like the ra - diant moon-light,Shine down from heav'n a - bove. 



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P. S.L.No.82. 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 82 

l Class Letter and No 

Name J 

( Account No 



Town State Percentage. 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these 'questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1. What is Transposition ? 



2. Tn what way have we prepared the pupils for the study of transposition? Discuss fully. 



3. Explain fully the use of the larger scale ladder given in Illustration No. 1 of this lesson. 



4. Give a short model lesson explaining the use of douhle names for the chromatic steps. • 



5. Explain how the teacher should use the two scale ladders given in Illustrations Nos. 
1 and 2 of this lesson 

. .o. 

C. Give a short model lesson showing how the scale tones of the key of C are altered 
when the movable scale ladder is placed on K 

7. What is the relation of the signature to these altered tones? 

8. What skill has your class developed in learning to whistle? 

2 




If yon nre teaching at the nreMent time, aniMver the qiieMtion helow whfeh pertalus to 
your Cfraile, In writer to Hecure a pereeutng;e. If you nre not teaehliiK, It I* not neeessary 
to inNner eltlier quentton. 

9. If you are teaching in the Seventh Grade, and can put the lesson in this particular 
part of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions 
given, as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular les- 
son, indicate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained. 






Eighth Grade teachers only, should answer the following questions: 
10. Name three points that you have gained through the study of this lesson, which help 

you in teaching the class transposition or change of keys 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to leaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 



Answer 



Q. 2. 



Aniwer 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q. 4.. 



Answer 



Q. 5. 



Answer 



SEVENTH l.RAUE SERIES 1 

I SIEGEL- MYERS 

Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school musjc Lesson N? 83 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Transposition (Continued) 

Having learned that our scale ladder can move from one position, or note,to an- 
other, let us try some further experiments to find out the relation between the 
transpositions thus effected and the scales which we have already learned. In mak- 
S ing these experiments, use the diagram and scale ladder, as indicated in LessonN982. 

If Do rests on A, we find that we must use F sharp, C sharp, and G sharp, 
in order to bring the half steps at the right places, in the third and fourth, and 
seventh and eighth scale steps. So these three sharps are placed on the staff as 
a sign or indication that we are singing in the key of A. Now, place Do on E, 
and we find that it is necessary to use v sharp, C sharp, G sharp, and D sharp, 
in order to bring the half steps in the right places. Place the signature on the 
staff as before. When putting Do on B, it becomes necessary to use the four 
sharps already employed, and in addition we must use A sharp. In moving in this 
manner from one scale to the next, notice that we take for our new Do the fifth 
note above the last Do each time. 

Let us now take the fifth note below C to start the new scale and see what 
happens in the signature. Do then falls on F, and we are compelled to use B flat 
instead of B, to form the half step between the third and fourth scale steps. (This 
note could not be called "A sharp" because A is already used in the diatonic scale.) 
Moving a fifth lower again, we place Do on B flat, and we find that we are com- 
pelled to use B flat and E flat. These we will hang on the staff, like a sign 
board on the street corner, as a permanent indication that we are singing in the 
key of B flat, and that B flat and E flat are used. Place Do on E flat and we 
have to use B flat, E flat and A flat, grouping them,as before, in the signature. 

Copyright MCMXII by Siejrrl- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



With Do on A flat, we find we must use the flats previously employed, and D flat 
in addition. Place Do on G flat and we shall need all the flats that we have used 
heretofore, and C flat as well. It should now be quite clear, why, for instance, five 
flats is the signature of D flat major, and of no other key, and also why the flats 
or sharps of the signature must be placed on the staff as they are. 

Composers often change key one or more times in writing a song. When this 
is the case, you must learn to think quickly of the tone in the first key that will 
give us Do in the new key. For instance, if you are singing in the key of C 
and the key is changed to G, you must think of Sol, and then call Sol-Do. If 
the key is changed to F, you must think of Fa, and call it Do. If the key is 
changed to F, you must think of Fa, and call it Do. If the key is changed to A 
you must think of La, and call it Do; etc. 

It is easier to do this from the key of C, than from other keys where there 
are sharps or flats in the signature to cause confusion. Let us suppose that we 
are singing in the key of E flat, and the key is changed to A flat. You must 
reason quickly that Fa of our old key will give us Do of the new, as shown in 
Illustration N? 1. 

111. N? 



M lijfe , lJWJJ.l 



Fa - - - Do 
If we are singing in the key of E flat and the key is changed to G, with a 
signature of one sharp, Mi of the scale of E flat will give us Do of G. This is 
shown in Illustration N° 2. 



111. N? 2 



^ , ir^Ji#7j 



Mi Do 

Let us suppose that we are singing in E flat, and at the note Sol, or B flat, 
we find that our signature is changed to G flat major, with the same note held over. 
It is easy to see that B flat was Sol in the key of E flat, and that it becomes Mi 
in the key of G flat, and so we hold the same tone, merely changing the name 
from Sol to Mi. This is shown in Illustration N? 3. 



111. N9 3^ 



P- S.I,. No. 83 



^ Sol - - • Mi 



It is very necessary definitely to adjust the feeling of tonality to the new 
keys used. When singing in a new key, it is well to stop at the point of transpo- 
sition and sing the chord Do, Mi, Sol, Do, to be sure that the feeling for the tonali- 
ty of the new key is clearly and well established. This is a very important point, 
as it covers one of the most difficult features of transposition, that of singing in 
tune in new keys. 

We must be very careful always to look at the key signatures to determine 
just what pitches are affected by the sharps and flats, and to learn whether they 
remain the same in the new key. That is, we must determine what pitches are no 
longer affected, and what new ones are substituted. To do this will develop and 
strengthen a very ready and useable knowledge of key signatures. 

An excellent drill in connection with transposition's to write on the staff 
a note in the third space, C, and ask the pupils what note it is. Then place one 
sharp on the fifth line as a signature, and ask what note (syllable name) this C is, 
in the new scale indicated by the signature. Next, place one flat on the third line, 
and ask the same question. In the same way, place every key signature before this 
note and determine its name in each case. Again, take another note, perhaps the 
one in the second space of the treble staff. In the absence of any signature, it be- 
comes La of the key of C. Place it after the signature of one sharp, or the key of 
G, and it becomes Re. Then write it after each one of the key signatures and ask the 
pupils to give the syllable names in each case, as outlined above. 

After the class has acquired some skill in naming notes in this way, make the 
drill individual. Write any signature and any note after it and let the pupil give its 
correct name. Again, name a signature, and hold up the fingers of the left hand to 
represent the staff lines. Point with the right hand to any position,andlet the class 
give the syllable name of the note. Then change the note, or position in the same 
key, and let the pupils answer individually. 

In this way it is possible to make the drill On transposition, ordinarily a most 
difficult subject, into a plesant game, and by means of it the pupil will develop 
surprising skill. Transposition will henceforth hold no terrors for pupil or teacher 
in sight-reading and they will learn to change readily from one key to another. 



The following exercise may be used as a study in transposition, the change 
from B flat major to G major being made clear to the pupils in the manner indica- 
ted in this lesson. 

A STUDY 

RHEINBERGER 

. Andanttno 



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Do Do Do Ti etc. 



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Do La 



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Mi Mi Mi Re etc. 



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Use the song "A Vow" for a sight reading study. 

A VOW 

From the German of Massmami 

/, Andante 



FOLKSONG 



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1. I've pledged my- self faith- ful, With heart and with 

2. Thy flag I will hon - or,Wher - e'er I may 

3. No mat - ter what trou - ble May vex me or 



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hand, To 
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thee, my own Coun - try, My 
flag of my Coun - try, The 
vow to my Coun - try 1 11 



dear na - tive 

flag of the 

nev - er for 



land, To 
free, The 
get, My 



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hee, my own Coun - try, My dear na - tive land, 

flag of my Coun - try, The flag of the free, 

vow to my Coun - try 1*11 nev - er for - get. 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 



Name. 



Examination Paper for Lesson No. 83 

Class Letter and No 

Account No , 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching In the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1. Give an extended model lesson, showing the effect in change of notes, when the mov- 
able scale ladder is placed on A, B, C and D of the double octave tone ladder given 
in Lesson No. 82 



:i. 






(a) What is the effect when the scale ladder is placed upon successive fifths above 
middle C ? 



(b) What is the effect when the scale ladder is placed upon successive fifths below 
middle C ? 



Give an extended model lesson showing the effect in change of notes, when the mov- 
able scale ladder is placed on F, A flat and B flat of the double octave tone ladder 
in Lesson No. 82 





4. What effect does the composer gain by changing the key in a song? 



5. When the key is changed, what must be the first thing for the pupil to think of?. 



6. If the key is changed on a note which is other than Do in the new key, how should the 
new key be established? 



7. On the staves below, illustrate a change of key (in syllable names and signature) between 
the keys of: 

(a) E major and P major, 



^ 



<b) E fiat major and D flat major. 



(c) A major and D major (changing key on some other tone than Do), 



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(d) B flat major and G minor (as above). 




Why is it necessary to establish the feeling for the tonality of the new keys?. 






9. What is the best way to accomplish this?. 



]0. Why is it necessary, in case of a change of key, to compare the new signature and the 
old? 



11. Describe two good transposition drills. 



If you are teaching: at the present time, answer the question below which pertains to 
your Grade, In order to secure a percentage. It you are not teaching, It la not necessary 
to answer either question. 

12. If you are teaching in the Seventh Grade, and can put the lessons in this particular 
part of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions 
given, as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular lesson, 
indicate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained 



Eighth Grade teachers, only, should answer the following questions: 
13. (a) Give a complete outline of your previous method for teaching transposition. 



(6) After a two weeks' drill of your class in accordance with Lessons Nos, 82 and S3, 
give a statement of the results obtained, and compare these with the results of 

your previous methods 



(c) Name three important points which you have gained from the study of this lesson, 
which you can apply directly to your classroom work: 






In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 



Q. I. 



Answer 



Q. 2.. 



Amwer 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q. 4. 



Answer 



Q. 5., 



Answer 



SEVENTH GRADE SERIES 1 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school' music Lesson N? 84 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Song Material for Seventh Grade 

The song material for the seventh grade should consist largely of pleasing 
songs in three parts for unchanged voices. There are a great many standard part 
songs which are arranged in this form. The unison song also is of great value in 
keeping the voices uniform and smooth. Boys with changing voices may join in a 
unison song, singing the melody an octave lower, and feel that they are helping 
and not spoiling the effect, as is sometimes the case in part songs. Many excerpts 
from the great Oratorios are simple enough to be taught as unison songs, as, for 
example, the aria "He Shall Feed His Flock" from "The Messiah" by Handel, 
and "if With All Your Hearts" from "Elijah" by Mendelssohn. The teacher should 
have many of these unison songs at her disposal and use them freely, as they are 
of the utmost value in educating the musical taste of the pupils. 

The familiar melodies of the better class of plantation songs are both simple 
and interesting. Such songs as "My JDld Kentucky Home," "SuwaneeRiver','"Massa's 
in the Cold, Cold Ground," and "Old Black Joe" may be sung in unison, or in two or 
three parts. Those which were learned in the earlier grades as unison songs can 
now be given as part songs, and with greater success and interest to the pupils, 
because they are familiar from previous study. 

There are also great numbers of German Folk Songs that are excellent forstudy 
in this grade. "The Lorelei," "The Lullaby" by Brahms, "The Cradle Song" by 
Taubert,and "The Cavalryman Song" are but a few of the large repertoire now at 
the disposal of the teacher. These are generally arranged as two, three, or four- 
part songs and are to be used either with or without accompaniment. 

There are, also, a great many of the old English Glees that will serve splen- 
didly as studies in this grade. Our own American composers have contributed some 
excellent songs for two and three parts. Vincent, Gilchrist, Nevin,Foote,MacDowell, 

Copyright MCMXII by Sieg-el-Myers Correspondence School of Music 



Mrs. Beech, Edgar Stillman Kelley, and others have written splendid part songswhich 
are adaptable to the needs of unchanged voices. Mrs. Gaynor's "Slumber Boat" in three 
parts is excellent, as well as a number of others from her pen. A fine collection of 
new and singable part songs may be found listed in the Coda and Leaflet publica- 
tions of many of the school book publishing houses. 

Some excellent simple part songs are published by George B. Jennings Co,, 
Cincinnati, Ohio; and the Eldredge Entertainment House, Franklin, Ohio. This 
latter firm publishes a great variety of cantatas, dramas, short farces, Christmas 
entertainments, flower drills, fancy marches, patriotic dramas, etc., which are excel- 
lent material for the purposes of school entertainments. The Clayton F. Summy 
Co. of Chicago, Arthur P. Schmidt & Co. of Boston and the White-Smith Music 
Publishing Co. of Chicago, also publish many two and three part songs that are 
very effective, including those mentioned earlier in this lesson. 

The success of the work in the Seventh and Eighth Grades depends largely up- 
on the choice of pleasing songs by the teacher. These suggestions should serve to 
equip the teacher with a large variety of material upon which she can draw, accord- 
ing to the demands made by her school work. She should make it her business to 
become acquainted with a large number of songs which represent available material, 
of which only a few are suggested above. 

Below are given examples of such songs as have just been suggested; songs 
which the thorough equipment given the children in the preceding grades will en- 
able them to sing well and to appreciate. 

In the song- "Hedge-roses," the soprano and alto parts are each divided into two 
groups i. e. 1st and 2nd Soprano, and 1st and 2nd Alto. 

HE SHALL FEED HIS FLOCK LIKE A SHEPHERD 



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From "THE MESSIAH" 
by HANDEL 



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He shall feed His flock like a shep 



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shall feed His flock like a shep 



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He shall gath - er the lambs with His arm, 



with His arm. 




*TAe remainder of this Aria is exactly similar in style to the foregoing excerpt. It 
can be found in any copy of the Oratorio. 



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Con tenerezza 

SOPRANO I 



HEDGE -ROSES 
{Maiden -Roslein) 



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l.Once a boy a wild-rpse spied, 

2.Saidtheboy"l'll gath-er thee, 

3.Tho't-less-ly he pull'd the rose 



SOPRANO II 



In the hedge-row growing,Fresh in all her 
In the hedge-row growing!Saidtherose"Then 
In the hedge-row growing,Butherthornstheir 



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l.Once a boy a wild-rose spied, 
2. Said the boy'l'll gath-er thee, 
3.Tho't-less-ly he pull'd the rose 

ALTO II 



In the hedge-row growing,Fresh in all her 
In the hedge-row growingiSaid the rose"Then 
In the hedge-row growing,Buther thorns their 




youth-ful pride; When her beau-ties 

I'll pierce thee That thou may 'st re 

spears op-pose. Vain- ly he la- 



he descried, Joy in his heart was 
- mem-ber me, Thus re - proof be - 
ments his woes,With pain his hand is 




youth-ful pride; When her beau-ties he descried, Joy in his heart wa 

111 pierce thee That thou may'st re - mem-ber me, Thus re - proof b 

spears op-pose. Vain-ly he la-ments his woesWith pain his hand if 




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glow - ing. Lit - tie wild-rose, wild-rose red, In the hedge-row growing, 

stow - ing." Lit - tie wild-rose, wild-rose red, In the hedge-row growing, 

glow - ing. Lit - tie wild-rose, wild-rose red, In the hedge-row growing, 

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glow - ing. Lit - tie wild-rose, wild-rose red, In the hedge-row growing, 

stow - ing." Lit - tie wild -rose, wild-rose red, In the hedge-row growing, 

glow- ing. Lit - tie wild-rose, wild- rose red, In the hedge-row growing. 




■g- a tempo 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 84 

VT ( Class Letter and No 

Name J 

( Account No 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching In the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these question* 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1. What is the general principle to be followed in the choice of songs for the Seventh and 
Eighth Grades ? 



2. What is the particular value of the unison song at this period?. 



3. In what way is the teacher able to form the musical taste of the pupils?. 



4. Give two examples with which you are familiar in each of the following classes of 
songs, omitting those mentioned in the lesson 

1. Unison Songs. 

' 

2. Plantation or American Folk Songs. 



3. German Folk Songs. 



4. English Glees. 



5. What is the particular value of using in part-song form those songs which have for- 
merly been employed for unison singing? 



fi. Name four American composers who have written songs appropriate for school use.... 



7. Name three songs which you have used, with particular success, or which you know 
to be good and available material for the Seventh Grade 



I* yon arc teaching" Bt the present time, answer the question below which pertains to 
jour Grade, In order to secure a percentage. I* you are not teaching, It Is not necessary 
< <> answer either question. 

8. If you are teaching in the Seventh Grade, and can put the lesson in this particular 
part of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions 
given, as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular les- 
son, indicate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained : 



Eighth Grade teachers only, should answer the following questions: 
0. (a) Give a list of songs by representative American composers, which you have used 
in your work in the Eighth Grade 



(b) Do you still use Canons and Old English Glees in your song work? 

(c) Nome one particularly good arrangement of a Plantation Song, which you use in 

your song tt'ork 






.'! 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 

Answer 



Q 2 

Answer 

Q. 3 

Answer 

Q. 4 

Answer 

Q. 5 

Answer 

4 



SEVENTH GRADE SERIES 1 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Cliicago, m. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N? 85 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

The Bass Clef and The Great Staff 

Toward the end of the Seventh Grade we often find that a sufficient number 
of the boys' voices have changed to make it possible to create a bass voice division. 
Whether there are enough of them to carry their parts successfully or not,we must 
now teach all the children to read from the bass clef. It is unwise to permit the boys 
with unchanged voices to sing with the bass division, because the low range is a 
strain on the voice, and the harmony will be spoiled by an inversion of the intervals, 
but there is no reason why all the children should not understand how to read readily 
from the bass clef. This lesson may, therefore, be presented somewhat after the fol- 
lowing manner: 

So far in our music work, children, we have used a staff designa- 
ted by the clef sign curling around the Gr line, which sign is therefore 
called the G Clef. This clef represents music to be sung by women's 
,.or children's voices, or that which is played on the upper part of the 
piano above middle C. There is, however, another part of the staff 
which we have not yet used, and this we are going to learn about 
today. 

When people first began to use lines and spaces to indicate the 
pitch of tones, instead of merely placing the note characters "helter- 
skelter" on the page, as they did in the very early days of music, they 
found that it required eleven lines and the intervening spaces,aswell 
as an additional line above and below the staff, to represent all the 

Copyright MCMXII by Sii-frel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



2 

tones sung 1 by the human voice; that is, which should include the 

highest tone of a woman's voice and the lowest tone of a man's voice. 

This staff was called the Great Staff and looked like this. {Teacher 
drmvs on the board the Great Staff, as shown in Illustration NQ 1.) 



111. N? 



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You can readily see that this was very confusing- to the eye. For 
instance, it was difficult to determine instantly whether a note was 
on the sixth, seventh or tenth line; so, to assist the eye in reading 
more easily, the middle line C,was taken out, save when it was needed 
for a note: thus our Great Staff was divided into two staves. The 
lower half, which we have not yet studied,is used for the lower tones 
of the man's voice. This lower half is designated by a clef sign which 
begins on and curls around the F line, and is called, therefore, the 

F Clef. This clef sign looks like this. {Teacher draws on the board, the 
clef sign as show.' in Illustration N9 2.) 



111. N? 2 



^ 



The letters indicating the pitch names of this clef are simply 
those continued downward from the middle C, which we already know. 
We see now an added reason why this middle note, C, is called "mid- 
dle C" because it represents the dividing line between the two clefs 
of the great staff, and is also the point from which the notes are 
named in both clefs. 

Learning the names of the notes in the bass clef is quite as 
simple as learning those in the treble clef, which we already know. 



P. S. M N" 85 



Counting downward from C we have the notes B, A, G,F, E,D,C,B,A,G, 
r andE. {Teacher points out on the Great Staff } as in Illustration N° 1, each of 
these notes as she speaks of them.) Now, let us learn these notes as thor- 
oughly as we know the notes in the treble clef. What is the name of 
the fifth line of the bass staff? Mary, you may answer. {Mary answers 
U A>:) Yes; "A" is right. And the note on the third line? John, ycu may 
answer. {John answers "J>i') Yes; "D" is right. On the first line we 
find G; in the second space we find C; in the third space E; in the 

first space A, and in the fourth space G. {Teacher frames questions to se- 
cure these answers and also all the other letter names of the clef) 

These letter names for the notes of the bass clef always remain 
the same. But the range or octave in which they are sung will vary 
with the kind of voice used. When women, or children whose voi- 
ces have not changed, read from the bass clef they sing the exact 
pitch of the notes written, just as they do when reading from the 
treble clef. When boys voices change, they drop a whole octave; and 
so when men, or boys whose voices have changed, read in the bass 
clef (and in the treble clef, too for that matter), they sing tones an 
octave lower than the tones written. 

To illustrate this, when women and children whose voices have 
not changed, read the G second space of the treble clef . they sing a 
pitch five tones above middle C,just as written; whereas when men, or 
boys whose voices have changed, read this same note they really sing 
a pitch a whole octave lower than the pitch sung by women, or chil- 
dren whose voices have not changed. Thus the boys' or men's voices 
give a basis, or foundation upon which the women's and girls' voices 
can build. In a chord composed of several tones that harmonize, the 
bass tones sung by men and boys whose voices have changed, because 
they are lower than the rest, give substance and solidity to the chord. 



Give plenty of drill to the entire class on reading- from the bass, or F clef, 
after the manner indicated in the lessons on reading the notes in the treble clef. 
Then, if there are enough basses to hold the part firmly, study some simple part 
songs in three parts for soprano, alto and bass. The song given below will serve 
excellently for this purpose, and others can be selected from whatever song books 
are used in your school. 

SWEET AND LOW 

ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON 

Softly and slowly 



ph ' , i m m j m v i 




r yr r TV1 FTR7 fvr' f r - 

1. Sweet and low, Sweet and low, Wind of the west - ern seal Low, low, 

2. Sleep and rest, Sleep and rest, Fa-ther will come to thee soon; Rest, rest, 



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breathe and blow, Wind of the west - ern sea! 
on mother's breast,Fa-ther will come to thee soon; 



O -ver the roll - ing 
Fa-ther will come to his 




wa - ters go, Come from the dying moon and blow, Blow him a-gain to me, 
babe in thenest, Sil - ver sailsallout of the west, Un - derthe sil-ver moon, 




Blow him a-gain to me, While my lit-tle one.Whilemy pret-tyone,sleeps. 
Un- derthe sil -ver moon: Sleep, my lit-tle one,Sleep,mypret-tyone,sleep. 




From "Himnonic Fifth Reader" Permission American Book Co. 



Siegel -Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 85 

,, ( Class Letter and No 

( Account No 



r own State Percentage. 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

!• Why have we delayed the study of the bass clef until the present time? 




-• Why should not the boys with unchanged voices be permitted to sing in the bass clef? 
Discuss fullv 



3- Explain fully the difference between the G clef and the F clef in appearance and effect. 



4. Explain tlie uses to which the two clefs arc put. 



5. Explain the use of the Great Staff and its relation to teaching the notes of the bass clef. 



0. Why was the Great Staff divided into two parts ? 



7. Why is. Middle C so called?. 



8. Have you ever learned or taught the notes in the bass staff in a different manner from 
that described in this lesson? 



9. Give two reasons why the method described in this lesson is both simple and logical. 



10. In the space below, draw a staff, insert the. bass clef, and write the following notes 
_ thereon : B, G, F, E, A, E flat, C sharp, A flat, F sharp and A sharp 



11. Explain briefly the difference in pitch between the male and female voice. 



12. On the staff below, show the actual pitch of the following notes when sung by the 
changed and unchanged voices: Middle C, E, on the first line on the treble staff, 
A, on the fifth line of the bass staff, and G, on the fourth space of the bass staff. 

(Write the note and also indicate the pitch of the note sung by both voices.) 



i 



m 



If you are teaching: at the present time, answer the question below which pertains to 
your Grade, in order to secure a percentage. It you are not teaching;) It la not necessary 
to answer either question. 

13. If you are teaching in the Seventh Grade, and can put the lesson in this particular 
part of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions 
given, as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular les- 
son, indicate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained 



Eighth Grade teachers only, should answer the following questions: 
14. (a) Have you previously used the Great Staff in presenting the bass clef to the class? 



(6) Have you ever presented the bass clef as a separate series of notes, without regard 
for the fact that they are a continuation of the treble or G clef series ? 



(c) Name two points that you have gained from this lesson which are of value to you 
in teaching the bass eleff 






In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 



Q. 1... 



Answer . 



Q.2. 



Answer . 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q.4., 



Answer . 



Q. 5. 



Answer . 



imiiianiimiMKHtt 









ElUHTH GRADE SERIES 1 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N<> 86 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Possibilities of Eighth Grade Music 

It is no longer necessary for us to point out in detail the ground necessary for 
the Eighth Grade teacher to cover in review, in bringing her class up to the standard 
required by the work in her grade. Exactly the same methods are to be persued in 
this grade as those outlined for the previous grades, in Lessons Nos.46, 53, 63, 
74 and 79 The arrangement of material will, of course, include that given in the 
Seventh Grade Series of lessons. 

The music study in the Eighth Grade should occupy a considerable portion of 
the school year. A very large percentage of the children never go farther in their 
education than the Grammar Schools; the Eighth Grade, becomes to many of them 
a finishing year, and a final graduation from the people's schools. In the music study, 
therefore, we must attempt so to shape the work that it will give the children, as 
far as possible, a preparation for taking an immediate part in the various musical 
activities of the community. We must give them sufficient vocal exercises to lead 
them to appreciate the value of special work when they are a little older. We should 
give them enough of the best part songs and selections from opera and oratorio to 
form their taste for a high class of music. In this effort alone we shall be building 
for the future welfare and culture of our pupils. A famous conductor once said that 

a 

popular music is, after all, only familiar music" and in the grades we have the oppor- 
tunity to so familiarize the pupils with the best class of music that the preference 
will remain with them through life. 

You must make the work so interesting that it will appeal to the boys in the 
class. Children at this age, as well as we of more mature years, enjoy appreciation 
and compliment, so they should be given opportunities for singing to their friends. 
If the music work has been developed as it should have been in the previous grades ; 
it is possible for an Eighth Grade class or chorus to give a very enjoyable public 
entertainment. The parents are very anxious about the work of their boys and girls, 
and nothing pleases them so much as to come to the school and hear a fine concert, 
or an attractive operetta in which their children take part. There is ho other 
one thing in our school life that can be made such a power for holding the interest 

Copyrig'ht MCMXII by Siege)- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



2 

and love of the children, and the interest and appreciation of their parents, as the 

music work, in these upper grades. The young voices have now considerable timbre 
and color. The children enter readily into the analysis of a song and are able to give 
sympathetic expression to its varying moods. There are always a few who have de- 
veloped special and, perhaps, unusual talent. It is of the greatest importance to 
these children that we help them to understand and develop the powers which they 
may possess. Many a wild and incorrigible boy has been brought under control by 
the discovery that he possessed a voice and by the stimulation of his ambition to 
develop it. 

The Eighth Grade chorus work, then, should be of such a character that out 
of it may grow one, two, or even three public performances in the year. These 
may take the form of part-song concerts with readings, composer's days, or per- 
haps songs of some one nation given partly in costume, or even a cantata or an 
operetta. It is well to plan very early in the year just what particular form these 
public entertainments shall take, and then direct the regular chorus work accord- 
ingly, so that any special preparation may be avoided and the showing be that of 
regular class work, rather than a special effort on the part of the pupils. 

While the Eighth Grade music study should be devoted largely to chorus sing- 
ing and music appreciation, we must not by any means neglect the sight reading 
drills. In schools where the pupils have read music systematically from the Fourth and 
Fifth Grades, they should now be able to read readily at sight, songs and exer- 
cises of ordinary difficulty, without using the syllable names of the notes. They 
should be able to look or scan through their parts hastily, think the pitch of the 
notes and sing the song through with the words. Possibly if the song is a little 
more difficult, you may allow them to hum the parts through, thinking the sylla- 
bles but not saying them. 

Many supervisors discontinue the use of syllable names much earlier than this, 
requiring the children to sing the neutral syllables "La" or "Loo," or even the 
words, while they are still in the lower grades. The writer of this Course of Les- 
sons believes that much independence comes from such practice, even in the Third 
and Fourth Grades, where occasionally the children may read a simple little melody 
with words, and feels that such practice should be gradually extended so that in the 
Seventh and Eighth grades it becomes perfectly simple to do this at will; but at the 
same time she does not think it wise to do away altogether with the syllable names,even 
in the Eighth Grade. Pupils will ordinarily read difficult music more accurately and 
rapidly when they can use the syllables as a help in thinking the tone and pitch. In 
the Eighth Grade both methods should be used, i. e., reading at sight with words in 
the more simple work, and using syllables where needed when songs are more difficult. 



The version of "The Star-Spangled Banner" given below is the new arrange- 
ment of the song, which was adopted by the Music Section of the National Educa- 
tional Association in Chicago, 1912. 

THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER 



FRANCIS SCOTT KEY 1779-1843 

Solo or Unison 



Dr. SAMUEL ARNOLD 1740-1802 



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1. Oh! say, can you see, by the dawn's ear - ly light, What so 

2. On the shore, dim - ly seen thro' the mist of the deep, Where the 



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proud-ly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming Whose broad stripes and bright 
foe's haughty host in dread si-lence re - pos-es, What is that which the 



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stars, thro' the per-il-ous fight, Oer the ram-parts we watched, were so 
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gal - lant - ly stream - ing. And the rock - et's red glare, the bombs 
ceals, half dis - clos - es? Now it catch - es the gleam o f the 




NOTE._ "The Star- Spangled Banner" was first sung- In a tavern near the Holiday Theater in Baltimore, by 
Ferdinand Dunns', The tune was composed between 1770 and 1775. 



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burst-ing in air, Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still 
morning's fir.-t beam, In full glo - ry re -flect-ed, now shines on the 

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CHORUS. 



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KOh! P say, does 'that 
'Tis the star - span - gled 



star - span -gled 
ban - ner, oh! 



ban 
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3. And where is that band who so vauntingly swore, 

'Mid the havoc of war and the battle's confusion, 
A home and a country they'd leave us no more? 

Their blood has washed out their foul footstep's pollution; 
No refuge could save the hireling and slave 

From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave. 
And the star- spangled banner in triumph shall wave 

O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave! 



Oh! thus be it ever when freemen shall stand, 

Between their loved home and grim war's desolation, 
Blest with victory and peace, may the heaven-rescued land 

Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation. 
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, 

And this be our motto: "In God is our trust." 
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave 

O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave! 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 86 

( Class Letter and No 



Name 

( Account No 

T °wn State Percentage. 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 



!• Name two topics taken up in the Seventh Grade Music Study which should he added 
to the material already presented 



2 - What is the proportion of review work which is feasible in the Eighth Grade?. 



3 - Why should the music study in the Eighth Grade he given a generous proportion of 
time in the curriculum ? 



What are the two important ideals which should influence the work of the Eighth 
Grade teacher? 



I 

5. UiscuSs fully the opportunity of the teacher for cultivating a love of the best music 
among the pupils 







f>. Why should a particular appeal be made to the boys of the Eighth Grade?. 



7. Why should the public work, concerts, etc., remain the conspicuous part of the music 
study in the Eighth Grade ? 



S. Discuss the double aspect of the giving of concerts by the Eighth Grade. 



!). Why should attention be given to bringing out the special talent which may exist in 
the class ? 



ID. Discuss fully the use of syllables singing in the Eighth Grade. 



"• In what grade should the practice of singing without syllables be begun? 



1 2. What success may the teacher reasonably expect from the Eighth Grade pupils in sing- 
ing at sight simple songs with the words ? 



13. You should memorize the song "The Star Spangled Banner" with all its verses, and 
give particular attention to the arrangement of parts in the version given in the lesson. 
Compare this new arrangement with the one you already know 






'•*. If you are leaching in the Eighth Grade, and can put the lessons in this particular part 
of the course to immediate and practical use, you should follow the suggestions given, 
as far as possible. State below how closely you followed this particular lesson, indi- 
cate any changes you made, and give an account of the results obtained 



3 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may =.-zs. questions, 
m regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 



Answer . 



Q.2 



Answer . 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q.4. 



Answer . 



Q. 5 



Answer . 



EIGHTH GRADE SERIES 1 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N? 87 

BY FRANCES E CLARK 

The Development of Resonance in the Voice 

The first and foremost consideration of the music teacher in the Eighth Grade 
must be attention to the quality of tone and the care of the voices under her charge. 
We now need drills more particularly for flexibility and lightness of tone. In Les- 
son N? 75 you were taught the correct position for sitting at the desk while sing- 
ing. In Lessons Nos. 13, 14, 15 and 73 we learned the correct positions of the 
mouth for the various vowel sounds. In Lesson N? 80 we had the humming exer- 
cises for definitely placing the tone for the different vowel sounds. A careful review 
should be made of these three points at this time. Give special attention to the vowel 
sounds Ee, Ay, Ah, Oh and Oo, on each tone of the scale, and take care that the 
tone is not started in the throat with the so-called "click of the glottis" To avoid 
•his, prepare the vowel sound by the aspirate "H" singing Hah,Hee,Hoh, Hoo, etc. 
This will effectively prevent the throaty attack of the tone and the tone will become 
dear. Review the runs in thirds, which were also given in Lesson N9 80, using all 
the vowels and singing very smoothly and softly. 

There are a number of exercises which can be used to secure flexibilityof tone, 
and among them, those which follow are very good. From B flat below middle C, 
sing lightly and quickly Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Mi, Re, Do. Now sing the same phrase smooth- 
ly with the vowel sound Ee, sustaining the tone throughout. This is shown in Illus- 
tration N9 1. 



111. N? 1 2El 



jj «' j J i; U«N J J i 



Do Re Mi Fa Mi Re Do. Ee 



Now, raise the pitch a half step to B natural and sing the run again. Continue 
m the same manner, singing the run from C, D flat and D in succession. Now drop 
back to C, and sing the same run with the vowel sound "Ay." Continue the exercise 
starting in succession on D flat, D natural, E flat, E natural and F. Then drop back 
to D and sing the same run with the vowel sound "Oh!' With the same run and vowel 
s ound, starting now on D, raise the pitch of each successive exercise by half steps up 
to the note G. Now drop back to F, and, using the vowel sound "Ahj' singthis same 
series of notes with the mouth wide open and the tone well forward. Continue these 
e xercises as high as the highest voices can sing easily, those with the lower pitched 
voices dropping out gradually as it becomes too high for them. 

The most important work in voice development is the correct placement of tone. 

Copyright MCMXII by Sieg-el- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



2 

All the drills so far have emphasized the necessity for singing with the tone well for- 
ward in the mouth and without any effort in the throat, maintaining an easy relaxed 
condition of the muscles. Thus, the tone has been placed lightly and clearly on the 
tip of the tongue, as it were; that is, all the tones are produced well in front of the 
mouth and quite away from the throat. 

We must now begin to use special exercises to develop the true head quality 
of tone and to create a resonant or ringing quality of the voice. From the very be- 
ginning of the voice work in the kindergarten, we have taught the pupils to use a for- 
ward tone, but now we must know just how to get the tone into the cavities of the 
face, head, and chest and still focus in the front of the mouth, at the same time avoid- 
ing any tendency to a nasal tone; that is, we want to re-inforce the natural quality 
of tone, which is pure and direct, but without resonance, by using the resonance 
chambers in the cavities of the head and chest. Let us see how we can do this most 
simply. 

Blow on the pitch pipe the C above middle C, and on this pitch, sing the word 
"Ding" for a long sustained tone. Hold the "ng" sound in the nose. Now sing Do, 
Sol, Do on the words "Ding, Dong, Ding"very slowly, holding the "ng"sound in the 
nose, letting it ring and vibrate like a bell on each syllable. Repeat this same ex - 
ercise on the pitch D, and then ascend by successive half steps to the pitch F. Re- 
versing the exercise, sing in a succession of fourths downwards (Do,Sol,Do)the words 
"Ping, Pong, Ping"_ Hong, Kong, Hong"_ and "Sing, Song, Sing," and with each word 
try to develop the resonant, ringing quality of the sound "ng." 

Begin again on C, and put the tongue in the roof of the mouth, holding the 
teeth and lips slightly ajar. Hum the sound "N" with a mental effort to hold the 
resonant quality in the nose. Now, holding the tone in the nose, with the vibration 
of the tone in the cavities of the face where the "N" placed it, sing slowly the 
pitches, Do, Sol, Mi, Do with the syllable "No" on each tone, and let the "N" ring 
every time strongly, before singing the vowel sound. Sing the same from D flat, 
keeping the tone in the head, the lips shaped around the "O" focused in the very 
front of the mouth. Repeat on D, E flat and E. 

Now start again on C, and sing down the scale slowly and carefully with the 
syllable "Nay" on each note. Be certain that each "N" starts at the back of the nose, 
but that the "ay" is focused in the very front of the mouth with the teeth apart and 
the lips drawn back in a smiling position, and the throat absolutely easy and relaxed. 
Sing the scale again, starting first on D flat and then on D. Once more begin on 
D and sing down the scale with the syllable "Nah," taking care that each tone starts 
at the back of the nose with the "N" firmly placed, and with the mouth wide open 
for the broad vowel " ah" To vary these exercises, use again the octave from 
low Do to high Do and back on any pitch, and sing the word "Ho-san-na," each 
time throwing the tone in the head, but with an easy throat absolutely without ten- 
sion. "Think" the tone forward, "■think'" the tone in the head at the back of the 
nose, and it will go there. These exercises, if consistently practiced, will produce 
remarkable results in getting the ringing, resonant quality of tone characteristic of 

P. S. M. N9 87 



a well placed voice. Of course, it is impossible to get this result without the found- 
ation of a light, forward quality of tone, which has been at the basis of all of our 
voice work throughout the grades, and thus we find in the Eighth Grade the 
culmination of the long and carefully systematized development of the voice, 
which has been carried out in this Course of Lessons from the kindergarten and 
throughout the grades. 

The song "The Oars are Plashing Lightly" makes a most effective three- 
part song for the use of the pupils. Give particular attention to song analysis in 
studying it, guiding your work by previous lessons on this subject, and emphasize 
strongly the "atmosphere" and rhythm of the song. 



THE OARS ARE PLASHING LIGHTLY 



JOHN FOWLER 

Moderato 



ADAM GEIBEL 



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1. The oars are plash -ing light - ly, We re waft -ed down the stream, The 

2. The night-in-gale is sing- ing So soft - ly on the breeze, Hold 



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glit-t'ring rip - pies murm-'ring a -long, In ex- qui-site sweetness ac- 
list-'ning ear to the sweet thrilling notes, As our boat o'er the sil-ver - y 



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com-p'ny the song Of the oarsmen,Of the oarsmen, As we glide a-longthe stream, 
stream soft-ly floats,Oh ; 'tis rapt-ure,Yes,'tis rapture,While gliding a-long the stream. 



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Allegretto grazioso 




Glid-ing, glid - ing, O-ver the moonlit stream; Drift-ing, drift-ing, 




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'neath the bright moon- light. 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 87 

., ( Class Letter and No 

Vame 3 

( Account No 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1. With proper care and training continued throughout the grades, what should be 
the condition of the voices of the children in the Eighth Grade? 



2. What is the benefit of exercises for flexibility and lightness of tone at this time? 



3 - What three points which have been treated in previous lessons are essential 
good tone production ? 






4. How can the "click of the glottis" be prevented?. 



5. What is the particular advantage of the exercises given in Illustration No. 1?. 



6. How would you describe the ideal quality of tone to 'be obtained from the pupils 
before we begin the development of voice resonance? 






7. What cavities of the body are used to develop resonance in the voice?. 




8. What should be the objective point in all study for the development of resonance? 



9. On the staves below, write out four of the exercises described on Page 2 of the 



Lesson Sheet 



10. State how closely you followed this particular lesson in giving resonance exer- 
cises to your class 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may «sk questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 



Answer 



Q. 2. 



Answer 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q. 4. 



Answer 



Q. 5. 



Answer 



EIGHTH GRADE SERIES J 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N° 88 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

The Head Tone 

The vowel drills given in Lesson N? 87 were used for placing the tone in 
the head. We used the simple method of singing first the "ng" sound long enough 
to vibrate in the nose; then singing the consonant "n" in the same position in 
connection with the different vowels. The formation of the head tone is one of 
the most valuable elements in voice development and it is absolutely necessary that 
the children be taught definitely to use it. It is practically impossible to explain 
to them what the head tone is, with any satisfactory results, but when they sing 
the "ng" sound in the nose they find out for themselves, by the quality of the 
tone, what is meant by the terrn'head tone" 

Great care and infinite patience will be required to determine that your own 
tone, as well as that of the children, is really vibrated in the head at the same time 
that it is focused at the front of the mouth; and it will require long and careful train- 
ing in order to be sure of the right results. The tone must speak from the lips, but 
must ring from the vibration in the head. This must be done with absolute freedom 
of the throat. There can be no tension or tightness anywhere, and the singing must 
be done as if the throat were merely a bit of rubber tubing without the power of 
muscular action. There must be complete and perfect relaxation. This must be 
the fundamental idea in mind when the exercises of this lesson are given. Discrimi- 
nating listening will also help the pupils to note the subtle difference in quality 
between the real head tone and the imitation or false one. 

Copyright MCMXII by Slepel -Myers Correspondence School of Musio 



Sing- middle C with a clear forward vowel sound "Ay." Sing low Do and 
high Do with the syllable "Nay" and slide rapidly down the scale to lower Do, 
sounding every tone included in the interval lightly and rapidly, in a smooth lega- 
to "curve." The tone is placed well forward and kept there securely, while the 
pitch is drawn down in a curved line, as it were, from high Do to lower Do. 
Continue this exercise on three or four successive half steps. Begin again on 
"D" Sing low Do and high Do with the syllable "No!' Slide rapidly down the 
scale, as before, on the vowel sound "o." Repeat the exercise, raising the pitch 
upward in successive half steps. Now start again on E flat and sing low Do and 
high Do on "Nah'.' Desend, as before, with the open vowel sound "ah!' Now 
begin on C an octave above middle C. Sing high Do and low Do on the word 
"Amen" holding the first tone for the value of a whole note and keep the tone 
on the final syllable vibrating clearly in the nose. Repeat this exercise on D flat, 
D and E flat. Begin again on middle C and sing low Do, high Do, and low Do 
on the word "Ho-sa-nnah" emphasizing the vowel values fully. Carry this exercise 
upward by half steps to the pitch G. These exercises are given briefly in Illus- 
tration N° 1. 



111. N? 1 



* 



Slide 



Repeat on these notes: 



^5" 



fc 



Nay - Nay-ay - 
Slide 



Repeat on these notes-. 




# 



Nah-Nah-ah 
Slide 



Repeat on these notes-. 

fe 1 



¥ 




P. S.L. No. 88 



Repeat on these notes-. 



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Et 



Ho - - sa - - nnah 
" In Illustration N? 2 we have a splendid exercise for the placing- of the tone 
with the letter "n," which is used by Frederick W. Root. Sing it slowly with 
full value on the vowel sounds, and see that each "n" is given with a ringing vibra- 
tion in the nose. 



111. N9 2 



F. W. ROOT 



w 



Slowly 



I 



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f 



m 



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0- 



"IT 



Nee Nay Nah No, Nee Nay Nah No, Nee Nay Nah No Noo. 

For development of lightness and flexibility of tone, nothing is better than 
the scale run of a ninth (one note above the octave) using the different vowel 
sounds, Ee, Aye, Ah, Oh and Oo on the various groups of the scales. Start on middle 
C and sing rapidly and smoothly as follows: Do Re Mi Fa on Ee, Sol La Ti Do 
on Ay, Re Do Ti La on Ah, Sol Fa Mi Re on Oh, and the low Do on Oo. This 
run is shown in Illustration N9 3. Sing very lightly and rapidly, carrying up the 
exercise as high as the highest voices can sing without strain, those with voices 
of lower range dropping out as the pitch becomes too high for them. 



111. N? 3 



Ee Ay Ah Oh 



Oo 



^S 



aa 



** 



Ee. 



Ay. 



Ah. 



Oh Oo 



Repeat on these notes-- 



Be 



o: 



etc. 



The Russian National Hymn must be sung with special reference to using- the 
head resonance and developing a light, vibrant tone quality, and should be given in 
abroad dignified style. 

GOD EVER GLORIOUS 

s. f. smith (Russian National Hymn) alexis t. lwoff 

Maestoso 



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1. God ev - er glo - ri - ous! Sov 

2. Still may Thy bless - ing rest, Fa 



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av - ing the ban - ner of peace o'er the land; 
O - ver each moun- tain, rock, riv - er, and shore; 



land, 
shore. 



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Thine is the vie - to - ry, 

Sing Hal - le - lu - jah! 



Thine the sal - va - tion, 
Shout in ho - san - nas! 



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Strong to de - liv - er, ' Own we Thy hand. hand. 

God keep our coun - try Free ev- er more. more. 




From "Melodic Fourth Reader" Permission American Book Co. 



Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 88 



Name. 
Town. 



( Class Letter and No. 
( Account No 



State Percentage. 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 



1. Give a brief statement of the two methods used to produce resonance in the voice. 



2. Describe the quality of tone known as the head tone. 



3. Do you yourself have difficulty in getting a pure head tone with your voice?. 



4. Do you have any particular difficulty in focusing the tone in front of the mouth 

while it rings in the head ? 



5. (a) Should your pupils have any particular difficulty in understanding what the 

head tone is? 



Ob) If so, how can you describe it to them?. 



6. Should the exercises given in Illustrations Nos. 1, 2 and 3 be practiced with a loud 
or soft tone? 



T. How much time, in your opinion, should he devoted to tone work in the Eighth 
Grade? • 






S. What should the lower pitched voices do, when the range of the exercises be- 
comes too high for them? 






9. Give on the staff below two exercises which you have used with good results in 
developing the head tone 



# 



10. If you have used this lesson, state below how closely you fojlowed this particular 
lesson, in giving exercises to develop the head tone to your class, arid tell what 
results were obtained • :e* 



S 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 



Aniwer 



Q. 2. 



Aniwer 

Q. 3. 

Answer 



Q- 4.. 



Answer 



Q. 5. 



Aniwer 



EIGHTH GRADE SERIES 



SIEGEL- MYERS 



Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, HI. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N9 89 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Additional Names of Scale Tones 
General and Specific Names of Intervals 

The tones of the scale in their relation to each other have often been likened to 
the different members of a family, as follows: -Low Do_Father,High Do_Mother, 
Sol_Big Brother, Fa_Little Brother, La_Big Sister, Re_Little Sister, etc. While 
these names are more or less imaginative, certain mental effects suggested by 
each tone are real and do genuinely exist. These effects are as follows: 

'Do —strong, restful, 

Sol_ insistent, dominating, 
|Ti_ restless, leading to High Do, 

Mi_ quiet, restful, 
|La_ mournful, plaintive, 

Re_ aspiring, 
,Fa_ strong, worshipful. 

We have spoken of Do as the tonic, meaning the home tone or resting - place 
of the scale. The other scale tones have been given definite names expressing their 
relation to the other tones of the scale. These names are as follows:-Z>o is called 
the tonic; Sol, the fifth above, because of its strong position and insistent quality, 
is called the dominant; Fa, the fifth below Do, and the next strongest tone in the 
scale, is called the sub-dominant; Ti is called the leading-tone or sub-tonic; Mi, 
a third above Do, is called the mediant; Re, one step above the tonic,is called the 
super-tonic; and La, the third below Do, 111. N° 1 

is called the sub mediant. Make these 
new names clearly understood by the use 
of the double scale ladder shown in Illus- 
tration N9 1. The pupils should be made 
thoroughly familiar with these new names 
of the scale tones, as they will frequently 
be used in the elementary harmonystudy 
in the High School Series of Lessons. These 
scale steps are sometimes written in the 
Roman numerals, as well as the Arabic. Re Super-Tonic i 

The distance between any two tones 

is called the interval between those two 1 .Do Tonic J I 

tones. This distance is measured in two ways; first by the number of staff- degrees, 
which determines the ge?ieral name of the interval; and, second by the number of 
half-steps, which determines the more definite or the specific name of the interval. 

Copyrig-ht MCMXII by Sieg-el-Myers Correspondence School of Music 



Do 


Tonic 


Ti 


Leading Tone 


La 


Sub-Mediant 


Sol 


Dominant 


Fa 


Sub-Dominant 


Mi 


Mediant 


Re 


Super-Tonic 


Do 


Tonic 



I 

VII 
VI 



IV 

III 



2 

In speaking- of an interval we use both the general and specific names. It is necessary 

that we know the general and specific names applied to all intervals, so that we can 
determine at a glance just what kind of an interval is used in a given place. 

The interval between two scale tones may occur either between Do and some 
other tone, or between two tones neither of which is Do. Measuring from Do.-- the 
interval Do to the same Do is called a prime, because there is no difference in pitch. 
The interval Do to Re, since it includes two staff degrees, is called a second, which 
is its general name. The general name of the interval Do to Mi is a third, since it 
includes three staff degrees when read, or three scale tones when heard. Do to Fa 
is a fourth, Do to Sol is a fifth, Do to La a sixth, Do to Ti a seventh, and from 
Do to Do an eighth or octave. Write such intervals in any key, and notice that the 
general (or number) name of the interval is always determined by the number of staff 
degrees which are included in it. Those in Illustration N? 2, in C major, will serve 
as a model. 



111. N9 1 3c 



Prime Second Third Fourth Fifth 



* 



Sixth Seventh (Eighth) Octave 



The best method, however, by which to present the subject of interval measure- 
ment to the class, is to emphasize the distance between the tones first by the ear and 
then by the eye. Frequent drills in accordance with this method should be given, until 
these interval distances are readily perceived by the ear, and the names thoroughly 
mastered. These lessons may be given somewhat after the following manner: 

Now, children, suppose we have the skip or interval Do-M. This 
is the way we will count it to determine what kind of an interval it 
is: Sing Do, Mi, Do. Now sing Do and count it 1, Re and count it 2, 
Mi and count it 3. (Children sing and count as indicated). This means that 
we have moved three scale or staff degrees, and so the interval is 
called a third. 

For the interval Do-Fa, we sing Do for 1, Re for 2, Mi for 3, 
Fa for 4, and we find the interval is a fourth, because it includesfour 
scale or staff degrees. For the interval Do-Sol, we sing the sylla- 
ble names and count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and find that we have a fifth ... 
For Do-La, we sing the syllables for 1, 2, 3,4,5, 6, and then by 
counting, we find the interval is a sixth. For Do-Ti, let us sing 
as before, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and we find that the last pitch is a 
seventh from Do. From Do to Do we sing the tones for 1, 2, 3, 4, 
5, 6, 7, 8, and we know that is an eighth or octave. {Children sing all 

these intervals to illustrate .) 

P. S. M. NO 89 



3 
Now let us measure some intervals from tones of the scale oth- 
er than Do. Let us take the interval Re-La. Count Re-1, Ml-2, 
Fa-3, Sol-4, La-5, and we find that the interval Re to La is & fifth. 
For the interval Sol -Do, we get Sol-1, La-2, Ti-3 and Do-4, and 
so we call it a fourth. Mi-Do we know to be a sixth, since we must 
sing up six tones of the scale to reach Do, the upper tone. {Children 
sing all these intervals?) 

We have learned that there are general names given to intervals. There are 
also specific names, which express more exactly what kind of interval is used,that is, 
whether it is a standard sized interval or a larger or smaller interval than this stand- 
ard interval. These specific names are major or perfect, (see below) which are the 
standard sized intervals, minor, augmented and diminished. 

A major interval is one in which the upper tone is found in the major scale 
based on the lower tone of the interval. The intervals occurring between Do and 
any of the tones of the major scale are taken as standard, and these are all called 
major. In addition to being major, the fourth, fifth and octave are termed perfect be- 
cause when the tones are reversed (inverted), the new interval thus made is a major 
interval. The second, third, sixth and seventh are called major intervals. The 
specific and general names of these two groups of intervals must be thoroughly mem- 
orized. 

In determining the general and specific names of a given interval, you should 
count the staff degrees and compare the interval mentally with the major scale on 
the lowest note. If the upper tone is found in the major scale, the specific name is 
either major or perfect, as explained above. If the interval is a half step smaller 
than a standard major interval, it is minor.If itis a half step smaller than a mi- 
nor or perfect interval, it is diminished. If it is a half step larger than the stand- 
ard major, or perfect interval, it is augmented. 

To sum up the whole matter, the following table should be memorized: 

A major interval is one in which the upper tone is found in the 

major scale based on the lower tone of the interval. 

A perfect interval is a major interval which remains a major 

interval when the tones are reversed (inverted). 

j A minor interval is a half step smaller than a major interval. 

A diminished interval is a half step smaller than a minor or 

a perfect interval. 

An augmented interval is a half step larger than a major or 

a perfect interval. 

Another way of presenting this subject to the class, is to use the two tone lad- 
dereemployed in Lesson N? 82. Place the small scale ladder on the step of the larger 
tone ladder representing the lower tone of the interval. If the upper tone corres- 
ponds with the perfect or major interval shown by the scale ladder, the interval is 
perfect or major. If it is larger or smaller than this specified standard interval, the 
specific name is applied in accordance with the table given above. 



Let us see how these rules apply to a number of different intervals. Study 
carefully the various intervals given in Illustration N9 3 and compare with them 
the explanations given for each in the next paragraph. 

111. N? 3 

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In Measure 1, there is given a fifth, D to A, and we know this is a. perfect fifth, 
because A occurs in the D major scale. In Measure 2 we have C to F. We know 
this to be a perfect fourth, since F is found in the C major scale. In Measure 3, 
we have D to F. We know at a glance this cannot be a major third, since F sharp, 
and not F, is found in the D major scale. Since F natural is a half step lower than 
F sharp, the interval is therefore a half step smaller than a major interval. By re- 
ferring to the tables given above, we find this a minor third. In Measure 4, we 
have the interval M to B\>. To determine the specific name of this interval, we 
must know that B flat, and not B natural, occurs in the E flat major scale; there- 
fore, the interval E flat to B natural would be an expanded perfect fifth. The ex- 
panded perfect fifth is called an augmented fifth. In Measure 5 we have the in- 
terval G to Cjf. We know at once that this must be an augmented interval, since C, 
and not C sharp, occurs in the C major scale, and the use of C sharp makes the in- 
terval a perfect fourth expanded one half step. This is called an augmented fourth. In 
Measure 6 we find G to Flj. In thinking of the G major scale, we know that F sharp, 
and not F natural, occurs in this scale, and therefore this interval is a half step smal- 
ler than a major seventh. According to the table, we know that this is called a minor 
seventh. In Measure 7 we have ffjjf to Flj. In the scale of G sharp major, we would 
use F double sharp as the seventh tone. F natural is two half steps lower than F dou- 
ble sharp, and we therefore have a major seventh contracted twice, which according 
to the rule means that it is called a diminished seventh. 

If the interval is particularly difficult, as in the case of Measure 7, it is well to 
transpose or shift both tones a half step lower. The interval will remain the same, 
and the simpler notation will make it easier to determine the general and specific 
names. Thus, Gtt to Y\ might be transposed down to G- Fl>, and the interval will still 
be a diminished seventh. 

Therefore, based on a thorough knowledge of the major scales,the naming of 
intervals by their general and specific names is a very simple matter. To repeat, 
apply the following simple rule for determining the specific names for all intervals: 

Call the lower of the given pitches Do, and if the upper pitch is one of the tones of 

the major scale built on the lower note, the interval is either major or perfect. 

If the upper tone is not found in the major scale built on the lower tone, the 

interval is either minor, diminished or augmented, according to the number of 

half steps the major interval is contracted or expanded by chromatic alterations. 

Seconds, thirds, sixths and sevenths are called major intervals. Primes, fourths, 

fifths and octaves are called perfect intervals. 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 89 

( Class Letter and No 

Name J 

( Account No 



Town State Percentage. . 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1. To what members of the family can the different scale tones be likened?. 



2. State the characteristic mental effects of the different scale tones. 



3. What other names are also given to the scale tones?. 



4. (a) What is an interval?. 



(b) How is the general name of an interval determined? 



(c) How is the specific name of an interval determined?. 



6. Give the general name of the following intervals: 

Do to Fa 

Do to Sol 

Do to Ti 

Do to Re 

7. Define the following terms: 

Major interval 



Perfect interval 



Minor interval 



Diminished interval 



Augmented interval 



8. Give the rule for determining the general and specific names of a. given interval.. 



9. Give both the general and specific names for the following intervals: 

C to E flat 

D to A 

E flat to G 

F sharp to D 

F sharp to E flat 

B to E flat 

A to C 

G to D sharp 

10. What is the principle underlying a successful presentation of the subject of in- 
tervals? Discuss fully 



11. If you have had occasion to present the subject of the general and specific names 
of intervals to your class, whether Eighth Grade or below, report the results 
of your work 



• *t*t%t%l Mm;-. ; ; n*.~. iv;i . . 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you ma> ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. l 



Answer 



Q. 2. 



Answer 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q. 4. 



Answer 



o. s. 



Answer 



EIGHTH GEADE SERIES 1 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N? 90 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Song Analysis 

The children in the Eighth Grade have advanced far enough in their literary 
studies to understand and appreciate the niceties of the English language. We would 
not think of teaching a poem from Longfellow, Tennyson, or Whittier, or a scene 
from Shakespeare, without scrutinizing carefully the meaning of every doubtful and 
unfamiliar word, looking up biblical, historical, and other references, and making 
a vivid word-picture of the scene depicted; and yet strange to say, we often sins: 
these same poems without giving more than a passing thought to their innermean- 
ing. Our songs, therefore, lose half their beauty and force when, through lack of 
song analysis, the children do not understand the story about which they sing, or 
appreciate the imagery of the words. Surely this is a most important consideration, 
since understanding is what makes their song work of superior worth. Therefore, 
before teaching a song or chorus, we should make a close study of the words, read 
the poem very carefully, analyze the meaning of the words, make the references 
plain, and by word-painting make the setting real and vivid. The children will then 
have something to sing about, and their enthusiasm will be increased tenfold. 

Take, for example, the "Star Spangled Banner." Before singing the song, paint 
a word-picture of the historical setting of the scene. Speak of the war of 1812, and 
the coming of the English fleet. Make clear their position in the harbor at Baltimore, 
and the danger to the capitol at Washington, and to the country at large, if the ene- 
my were successful in their attack. Tell the story of Francis Scott Key, the young 
lawyer, and his visit to the British Ship in the harbor to see his friend, who was 
being held as a prisoner. . As the bombardment was about to begin, he was 
kept on board the ship all night while the enemy's guns were hurling shot and shell 
over the forts on the shore, where his beloved flag was flying. Picture the anxiety 
of the long night when, because of the darkness, the occasional rockets sent up 
from the fort were the only encouragement he had, to think that the Americans were 
holding out. Make the children see the coming of the dawn, first grey and then rosy 
in the East, but with smoke and fog still heavy on the shore. At times through the 
rifting cloud, Key imagines he can see the flag still flying on the ramparts, where 
he had seen it last in the twilight of the night' before; he can not be certain for some 
time that it is really there, and so he anxiously asks his friend, . 

"O, say, can you see by the dawn's early light • 

What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?" 

Picture his wild and uncontrollable joy when at last he sees it flying there ful- 
ly revealed, and then, 

Copyright MCMXII by Sieg-tl-Myers Correspondence School of Music 



"Tis the star spang-led banner, O long may it wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave" 

Who could sing "Flow Gently Sweet Afton" without knowing the story of Robert 
Burns and his highland Mary? Tell something of the life of Burns and speak of his 
tender, loving nature. Tell of his love for the gentle Mary, of her burial in the cem- 
etry near the river Afton, and his heart-breaking sorrow. His nerves are unstrung 
and the slightest sound in the grave-yard seems to him a sacrilige. The "Green- 
crested lap-wing" disturbs him. The whistle of the blackbird breaks in upon his 
dreaming, and he fears lest the soft "coo" of the Scotch dove should disturb the 
sleep of the lovely Mary. 

It is almost impossible to get much sense out of the wonderful chorus "Lift 
thine Eyes" from Mendelssohn's "Elijah" without knowing the Bible story of the 
great Prophet. Tell the children about his struggle against the powers of wicked- 
ness, as personified by the wicked Queen Jezebel and the worldly court surrounding 
her. and his long fight against idolotry and the worship of Baal in the groves of 
Palestine. Tell of the trials by fire, when the idolatrous people called in vain up- 
on their God, Baal, to consume the sacrifice by fire, and Elijah called upon the 
Great Jehovah; and then the sacrifice was consumed. Then give an account of his 
ultimate defeat and heart-breaking flight into the desert, where alone, discouraged, 
disheartened, and utterly forlorn, he prayed to God to let him die. Tell of the 
visit of the three angels who came to remind him that he was not forgotten, that 
his life work had not gone for naught, and picture the inspiration of their wonderful 
message: - 

"O lift thine eyes to the mountains whence cometh help. 

Thy help cometh from the Lord, the Maker of heaven and earth. 

He hath said thy foot shall not be moved, thy people will never slumber." 

{See song given at the end of this lessoti.) 

Again, we find a splendid opportunity for song analysis in the "Song of the 
Skylark" by James Hogg, the Scotish Poet, beginning 

"Bird of the Wilderness, 
Blithesome and cumberless" 

In this analysis you can bring out the meaning of the poem by questions, such 
as, Why is the skylark a bird of the wilderness? What is the meaning of the words 
"blithesome" and "cumberless?" What is a"matin?" What are the moorland and the 
lea? Where is the skylark's dwelling place? What is a"lay?" Why did the poet 
say it is "loud?" What is a "fell?" What is meant by the "red streamer "andhowdoes 
it "herald the day?" What time of the day does the skylark sing? What is the "gloam- 
ing?" What is "heather?" Where does the skylark make its nest? Describe the great 
painting "The Song of the Lark" of Jules Breton, and ask the name of the artist. 

These are but a few suggestions which may serve to indicate the increased in- 
terest which it is possible to create in all song study by analysis of the words. By 
clever and interesting lessons on this subject, you can open deep wells of enthusiasm 
for singing among the pupils. This factor should always be kept in mind by the dili- 
gent and efficient Eighth Grade music teacher, since her opportunities in chorus work 

are almost unlimited and she should make the most of them, 
p. s. M. No. so. 



The chorus "Lift thine Eyes" from Mendelssohn's "Elijah" can be used most 
effectively when analyzed in the manner described in this lesson. 

LIFT THINE EYES 

From "ELIJAH" F. MENDELSSOHN- BARTHOLPY 

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Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 90 

I Class Letter and No 

Name J 

( Account No 



Town State Percentage. 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1. Why is it essential to give song analysis in the Eighth Grade? 



2. What are the immediate benefits resulting from an intelligent song analysis by class 
and teacher ? 



3. What reason can you give for the apparent neglect of song analysis in the Eighth 
Grade when so much analytical study is done in English Literature? 



4. Make an interesting song analysis of the following songs, presenting the material 
as you would if the pupils were actually studying these songs : 
Lesson No. 81. "The Last Days of Autumn" 










Lesson No. 84. "Hedge Roses". 



Lesson No. 85. "Sweet and Low". 






. 



Lesson No. 87. "The Oars Are Plashing Lightly" 



■•■•(•■•■■■••■•••••■•■•■••■■a. 



Lesson No. 88. "God Ever Glorious" 



5. If you have had occasion to use this lesson in song analysis in the Eighth Grade, 
state below what songs you treated in this way and indicate the results obtained. 



6. Do you understand and have you mastered all the lessons you have had so far from us . 







7. If not give in the space below, the subject and number of lessons with which you no 1 - 

have difficulty, stating definitely what the trouble is, so that we may offer ar 
help or suggestion, and give you special reviciv work . 



8. If you are satisfied with your progress and understand everything you have had so I: 
the above review is unnecessary and the diploma will be issued to you at the co 
pletion of the Course. If this is the case, please give the exact name that you w: 
on your diploma 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions in regard 
teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions will be answered in 
spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. i 

Answer 

Q. a 

Answer 

Q. 3 

Answer 

4 



EIGHTH GRADE SERIES 1 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N9 91 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Chorus Singing 

The most important part of the music study of the eighth grade is the cho- 
rus singing. This represents the crowning glory, as it were, of the music study 
which has been continued from the Kindergarten up to this point, and it should be 
developed to the highest degree of efficiency. 

The voices were, or should have been, personally tested in the Seventh Grade, 
in accordance with the instructions given in Lesson N? 79,but being in a chang- 
ing state they will probably need a new test, in assigning the parts in the Eighth 
Grade. There is no subject of greater importance than the classifying and con- 
serving of the children's voices. Irreparable harm may be done by permitting a 
boy or girl to sing steadily in a part which causes strain to the vocal chords. 

Simply because a girl has a musical ear and can hold the middle or lower 
parts particularly well and with genuine delight, is no reason why she should be 
allowed to sing tones which are lower than the natural range of her voice,and there- 
by incur the danger of spoiling it. If her voice is high, she should sing soprano 
most of the time, after it has definitely shown itself to be soprano. An occasional 
use of the lower range is good to keep the voice in good condition, but the ma- 
jority of the work should be done on the upper tones. 

It is likewise most disastrous to permit the low, rich, alto voices of the class 
to endeavor to climb up to the higher registers, away from their natural range. Sim- 
ply because the children have not learned to hold the middle or lower part, or be- 
cause the parents or friends feel that they should sing soprano, is in no reason why 

Copyright MCMXII by Si^g-el-Myers Correspondence School of Musio 



2 

they should be allowed to strain, and possibly ruin, their vocal chords, and inflict a 

permanent injury on the voice. The teacher will sometimes find a decided preju- 
dice against singing' in the alto part. This is most unreasonable, for the truth is, 
that a true alto or mezzo-soprano is much more rare than a soprano, and so much 
in demand at all times that such a voice is a treasure, and its possessor is to be 
congratulated. 

The voices must be placed where they will work most easily and most safely. 
What the voices may become in full maturity does not always appear at this early 
stage,but at least they must be safeguarded for future development. 

If there is any occasion to question the proper classification of any individu- 
al pupil in the class, you should make a test of a voice often, in some cases once a 
month, and in all cases twice a year, to make sure that the voices are under absolutely 
no strain. Classify the voices as soprano, mezzo-soprano or alto, low alto and bass, 
with the clear understanding that they may be changed when it seems desirable to ' 
the teacher; and in giving the vocal drills, vary the pitch so that all may partici- 
pate. Let the basses and lower voices sing as high as they can easily, and then 
stop while the higher voices continue to the top of their normal range. 

Review a number of the best folk songs and patriotic songs which were learned 
in the Seventh Grade. Take up such easy studies and exercises, as suggested below, 
for unifying the voices and harmonizing the parts of the chorus. If the bass divi- 
sion is weak, which often happens, use it only occasionally, and confine your ef- 
forts to two and three-part songs for unchanged voices. Then for the encourage- 
ment of the young basses, use songs in which the melody is given to the bass part. 
There are many songs in certain text books for the Eighth Grade, notably "The 
Laurel Music Reader" in which this is done. There are any number of classic songs 
which make useful and effective unison songs for harmonizing the chorus. Among 
them are, "Who is Sylvia," "Hark, Hark the Lark? "if With All Your Hearts" "Oh, 
Rest in the Lord"(from Mendelssohn's Elijah,)"Oh,for the Wings of a Dove", and 

P. S, M No 91 



many others. For patriotic occasions, use many of the war songs, flag- song's and 
songs of Washington and Lincoln. There are great numbers of beautiful glees 
arid part songs published in Coda form, by the various school- book publishing 
houses. Their catalogues will give you an abundant selection and the grading of 
these will make it possible for you to choose intelligently. Among the best lists 
are those published by Ginn & Co., 2301-2311 Prairie Ave., Chicago; Silver Bur- 
dett & Co., 358 Wabash Ave., Chicago; The American Book Co., 521 Wabash Ave., 
Chicago; The C. C. Birchard Co., 221 Columbia Ave., Boston; and the Geo. B. Jen- 
nings Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. You will find in the text books of almost any of the 
standard courses designed for Eighth Grade, a great number of beautiful songs and 
effective choruses. 

The familiar song The Watch on the Rhine" makes an excellent chorus, and 
one which enlists the enthusiasm of the pupils. It should be given with great spirit 
and energy, and will be one of your most effective Eighth Grade choruses. 

THE WATCH ON THE RHINE 

MAX SCHNECKENBURGER CARL WILHELM 

With energy 



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2. By hun - dred thou-sands forth they stream,Their eyes like flash -ing 

3. To heavh they raised their gleam -ing eyes; The he -roes saw them 

4. Loud rings the oath, the wa - ters flow, In the free breeze the 



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Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 91 

Class Letter and No 



Name. 

Account No. 

Town State Percentage. 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1. Why should the voices be carefully tested in passing from the Seventh to the 
Eighth Grade? 






2. What is the danger if this voice test is not very carefully done?. 



3. How should the teacher meet the objection of the girl pupils to singing in the 
alto part, when their voices require it? 



4. Should the higher voices always sing the soprano part, or should they occasionally 
use the lower range? 



5. When pupils find it difficult to sing a lower part, what special training should be 
given by the teacher, if the voice quality makes it necessary to place them 
among the altos? 



6. Does it often happen that the final quality of the voice does not always show in 
the Eighth Grade? 



7. What should be the first work given in the Eighth Grade for unifying the voices. 



8. What encouragement should be given to the bass division?. 



I 



9. Why is it unwise to have the basses sing the bass part always, instead of giving 
them the alto part occasionally? 



10. (a) How often should the test of all the voices in the class be made?. 



(b) How often should a special test of certain voices be made, if there is any 






reason to doubt their classification?. 



U. If you have had occasion to test the voices in the Eighth Grade, give a careful 
report of the number of voices in each division which are in your class 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 



Answer 



Q. 2.. 



Answer 



0. 3.. 



Answer 



0. 4.. 



Answer 



Q. 5.. 



Answer 



EIGHTH GRADE SERIES J 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N? 92 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Leading the Eighth Grade Chorus 

As is the teacher, so is the school. The success of an Eighth Grade Chorus 
depends almost wholly upon the attitude and equipment of the teacher. The love of 
music is infectious, and if the teacher or leader really loves her work, the pupils 
will imbibe the spirit. You cannot force children to sing; you cannot make them 
give of themselves in the singing; but it is your province and field of endeavor to 
make them icant to sing. It requires a considerable amount of poise and skill to 
conduct successfully an Eighth Grade Chorus. It is not sufficient merely to love 
the work. You must also know the work from the foundation up, and be familiar with 
every step by which the chorus singing of the Eighth Grade is made possible. To 
lead a chorus means that you must know music as a whole, and have mastered thor- 
oughly the principles involved in the music study of the lower grades. Your sense 
of rhythm must be very strong and your ear acute, to detect differences in pitch. 
Your sense of pitch must also be so sharp that it will enable you to hear simultane- 
ously the notes sung in the different parts. You must hear the alto and bass as well 
as the soprano, and be ready to detect instantly a mistake made in any one of the 
middle parts. You must be able to read by note quickly and accurately. 

In many Eighth Grade rooms there is a piano, and you will be greatly assisted 
in your work by the use of this instrument. The piano gives a splendid aid to the 
newly formed bass division, and also lends completeness to the ensemble. The ac- 
companiment at all times supports and guides the voices, and while it is not wise 
always to rehearse with it, because it may cover up individual errors in singing, still 
it is of the greatest assistance in improving the ensemble of the chorus singing. It 
is important and even desirable to teach the song by rote from the piano. Many 
times the class needs to learn a song quickly for some particular purpose, and it 
may often be one for which the music is not in the text book. It is excellent ear 
training for the pupils to learn it by listening to the piano. In the main, however, 
the songs and choruses should be read by note, studied part by part,and then fitted 
together, in the manner outlined in the lessons on part singing. This is the only 

Copyright MCMXIH by Sieirel-Myers Correspondence School of Music 



2 

sure process, and the only one to produce satisfactory effects. 

One of the most difficult problems met by the teacher is the necessity of 
keeping- other sections busy while one section is rehearsing its particular part. 
It is always possible to assign to the pupils a silent study of the words or of the 
notes of some part on which they are weak, while the others are singing. Re- 
member, also, that some rest is necessary for the children's voices, and they shouldnot 
sing for more than fifteen minutes without interruption. 

Beating the time is also an important factor in the work of the Grade Chorus 
leader. Your beat should be steady, definite, and decisive. You should reviewvery 
carefully the directions given in Lessons Nos. 54, 55 and 57 for beating time. This 
will give you the motions required in the various simple rhythms, and as ex- 
plained in these lessons, you should practice in private until the motions required 
for beating Z/^ y 3^, 4^ or 6/g time are simple and natural for you to do. If the 
children have been taught correctly to mark time in the intermediate grades, they 
will be able at once to catch the rhythm of any new song correctly, and therefore 
will only need to be held to a uniform speed by the chorus leader. 

It is not absolutely necessary that the director be able to sing well, but it 
is, of course, always desirable. Some of the very best Eighth Grade Chorus teach- 
ers cannot sing a note, but they amply make up for it by inspiration, keen analy- 
sis, an acute ear, and unusual magnetism and teaching power. 

To be a successful chorus leader, you must know very thoroughly the songs 
which you wish to present. You must as well know your class, both individually 
and collectively; know their tastes, their abilities, their short-comings. You must 
also bear in mind the personal characteristics and tastes of the principal of the 
school, and try to cater somewhat to his taste, thereby enlisting his enthusiasm 
for, and interest in your work. Meanwhile, try constantly to build up the standard 
of the work done in your school. You must be alive, alert, amiable and enthusias- 
tic. Do not scold, rave or rant to the pupils; but steadily and with a real love 
for your work, guide and lead the children in those paths which you know will 
make for their musical enjoyment and culture. 

One of the finest choruses in all choral literature which is suitaole for the Eighth 
Grade singers is" The Heavens' Resounding," by Beethoven. It should be given with dig- 
nity and solidity special attentionbeingpaid to the piano (or soft) passages in Meas- 
ures 11, 19 and 32, and to the crescendo passages in Measures 13 and 25, so that the 
firm, broad tone of the forte and fortissimo measures in the climaxes may be particu- 
larly telling"; by contrast. p. s m. ,\-o <,■> 



THE HEAVENS, RESOUNDING 



English Text by C. B. R. 

Maestoso f i 



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L. VAN BEETHOVEN Arr. by C. B. Rich 



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Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 92 

\ Class Letter and No 

Account No 



Name. 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1. What is one essential condition of the successful Eighth Grade Chorus ? 



2. Discuss the influence of the teacher upon the work of the children and the standard of 
music in the elementary schools 










• 



3. What must be the equipment of the teacher in conducting successfully an Eighth Grade 
Chorus ? 



4. Why is personal poise and magnetism of so much importance in the chorus leader's 

equipment ? 

5. (a) What is the value of a piano in the singing of the Eighth Grade? 

(b) What particular aid does this give to the bass division? 

(c) Why should the piano not be constantly used in the lesson ? 

(d) In what way is it of value in the lesson? 

6. Why is rote singing used even in the Eighth Grade? 

7. Discuss the problem of keeping one division occupied while another is rehearsing 

2 



8. Give a careful analysis of the motions required in the various kinds of rhythms you have 

studied 

2/4 



3/4 



4/4 



6/8 

9. Why is it imperative that the teacher should be thoroughly familiar with the songs which 
she presents ? 



10. (a) Is it essential for the director to sing well ? 

(b) If not, what other characteristics must she have ? 

11. Why is it necessary to consider the tastes and abilities of the class and the personal 

characteristics and taste of the principal ? 



12. If you are at present conducting an Eighth Grade Chorus give a report of the conditions 
of your work, the number and interest of the class, and the difficulties which you 
personally find in the work 



3 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 



Q. 1. 



Answer 



Q. 2. 



Answer 



Q. 3., 



Answer 



Q. 4.. 






Answer 



Q. 5., 



Answer 



. 







V-IUHTH (iKAUE SERIES 1 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, HI. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N? 93 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Public Programs 

When the Eighth Grade Chorus has "found itself and is able to sing with taste 
and expression some simple studies, songs and choruses, it is well to plan for a pub- 
lic day, giving either a concert by the chorus alone, or a miscellaneous musical pro- 
gram, in which the chorus participates. The work will be of more interest to your- 
self and the pupils if there is some such purpose in view. 

To make the work of special value to the children and to add something defin- 
ite to the sum of their general knowledge, as well as their musical experience, it is 
an excellent plan to select one or two composers and prepare an entire program from 
their works. There is a great amount of material which can be used for this pur- 
pose. Many of the works of the classic composers are possible to the Eighth Grade 
chorus and consecutive study of their works will be doubly valuable. Mendelssohn 
wrote a great number of simple choruses, either separate works or as parts of his 
oratorios, which are most acceptable material. Franz Abt was a prolific writer of 
simple melodious part songs. There are also many available selections from Handel, 
Schubert, Schumann and Brahms that are within the range of a well trained Eighth 
Grade chorus. < 

It is an excellent plan to invite one or more of the singers or instrumentalists of 
the community in which you live, to participate in these programs, asking them to play 
or sing for the children some selections from the composer which is being studied 
at the time. You will always find a ready interest among the artists when approached 
for such purposes, and, generally speaking, they will be glad to sing or play for the 
children gratis although they may be well paid for other public appearances. This 
brings about a reciprocal relation between the schools and the community, which is 
of the utmost value to the school as a whole. 

By way of special celebration, it is well to have a printed program, as it adds 
importance and dignity to the occasion. During the week previous to the concert, 
have the children write short biographical sketches of the composer whose works are 
to be given on that day, from the material which they can get from books or maga- 
zines in the home and library, and the best sketch should then be read as a part of 
the concert program, and, in addition, the principle facts of the composer's life should 
be written on the blackboard. This brings in a touch of musical history, which is 
valuable from a literary standpoint, and raises the concert from the purely musical, 
to the more broadly educational plane. 

This plan has been worked out many times with great success, For the guid- 
ance of the Eighth Grade teacher, we are giving several complete programs. In some 
cases the instrumental solos were furnished by the pupils themselves, and in others 
they were contributed by the artists of the community. The following Mendels- 
sohn Centenary Program was carried out entirely by the students of the School. 

Cuvyrirkt MCMXIII by 8ie«*l- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



Mendelssohn Centenary Program 



1. Piano.- 

Song's without words 

(a) SPRING SONG 

(b) CONSOLATION 

2. Reading-: 

FELTX MENDELSSOHN- BaRTHOLDY 

3. Duet: 

I WAITED FOR THE LORD . 

4. Reading-: 

STORY OF ELIJAH 

5. Selections from the Elijah.- . 

(a) Recitative and Aria: 

IT IS ENOUGH 

(b) Recitative and Trio: 

LIFT THINE EYES 

(c) Chorus .- 

HE, WATCHING OVER ISRAEL 

(d) Aria: 

0, REST IN THE LORD 

(e) Recitative: 

NIGHT FALLETH ROUND ME, LORD 

(f) Chorus: 

BEHOLD, GOD THE LORD PASSETH BY 

Reading: 

A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM 



Mendelssohn 



Mendelssoh?* 



Mendelssohn 



6. 
7. 
8. 



Piano Solo.- 

SCHERZO from "A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM" 

Chorus: 

HEAR MY PRAYER 



. Mendelssohn 
. Mendelssohn 



A most interesting program of the Italian Composers was given in one school. In 
this program the chorus was assisted by a pianola. Where possible it is an excellent 
plan to enlist the aid of a phonograph to supplement the work of the chorus-. 

Program of Italian Composers 

1. Chorus: 

(a) Italian hymn -...._. Oiardini 

(b) A MERRY LIFE ....... Dt'HZa 



2. 

3. 



Pianola: 

OVERTURE. 



'WILLIAM TELL" 



Chorus.- 

INTERMEZZO "CAVALIERIA RUSTICANA". 

4. Trio and Pianola: 

(a) FINALE. (from "LUCIA DE LAMMERMOOR") 

(b) THE GONDOLIER. Arrang-ement of Sextette 

(from "LUCIA DE LAMMERMOOR"! 

5. Piano Solo: 

SONATINE . - ... 

6. Chorus: 

(a) ANVIL CHORUS.(from"IL TROVATORE." ) 

(b) REST, WEARY PILGRIM 

7. Pianola: 

SERENADE .(from "IL PAGLIACCI") 

8. Chorus: 

(a) SEE HOW LIGHTLY ON THE BLUE SEA 

(from "LUCREZIA BORGIA") . 

(b) THE SHOWER .(from U 1L TROVATORE"> 

9. Chorus and Pianola: 

(a) FANTASIE. (from TL TROVATORE") 1 

(b) MISERERE. (from "IL TRdVATORE") . 

10. Chorus.- 

(a) SANTA LUCIA .... 

(b) THE BUGLER .... 

11. Chorus: 

La somnambula. . 

12. Chorus: 

(a) PILGRIM CHORUS (from "I LOMBAKDI") 

(b) GOOD NIGHT, GOOD NIGHT, BELOVED . 

P S.L.No. 93. 



fiossiwi 

-Mascagni 

. Donizetti 
- Jto/ttizetfi 

. Clementi 

Verdi 
. Donizetti 

Leoucaeallo 



Donizetti 
Verdi 

Verdi 
Verdi 



Neapolitan 



Melodtt 
PiM&uti 

Bellini 

Verdi 
Pinsuti 



3 

Another interesting' program given; was- that of ai Menriefesohn-Gounod Musical 
which, enlisted the efforts of the charm*,; and! a; sopvarao^, cjellistt and 5 pianist from the 
commimity.. This , program' was- as follows*.- ,' 

Meiid'tj-lissofiiffi-Sionrao^ Program . 

J. Chorus: ■ . , _ , 

UNE0LD v YE. PORTALS ('Pram* ''TR« RBDEMPTJOtS?')) _. '_ . Gounod 

2.. Cello. Soloi.- ■ ''■• ■ - ' ■ - 

serenade _. - _ _ - _ - _: . . Gounod ■,-" 

3.: Chorus:: , - '.. . . 

(a.) "THOU HAST OVERTHROWN, THINE ENEMIES^' ((Ptoml'EUMAfl!') Mendelssohn 

Cbi LOVELY! APPEAR (iFcomi"THB: HEDHMBTIOW)L '_ ... Gounod . 

4.. Soprano' Soloi: ; , . , • '.-..'' 

SELECTION ' (-Enomi ."mfflSOTIMKIU NIBHT.'* DRE&Mi")) . _ _. Mewifalssohn 

5.. Chorus^ ... 

THE LORD; IS- GREAT' (iPkcuni "AXEHMGIAt')) J _ _■•".' MandelsSOfm . 

6;.. PiailO: i ■ ' 

. rondo. eABREcpioso; (iojiuA- Wi)) . _ - _ . Mendelssohn 

7.. Chorus*.- ' 

(*)) Tmb- OVER HILT,,, OVERSALE'. ((F*om:"MrDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM") Mendelssohn 

Lb), Duetu o Wert thou in the: omiedj BEAST'' _ Mendelsso/m 

8. Soprano Solo with CeltoOhligatot: 

SING, SMILE , SLUMBER _' • _ .. ' . . Gounod 

9>„ Chfflirusr ."•"". 

farewell. TO; the: FOREST' . _ _ - . . Mendelssohn 

10.. Cello. Solo :,-. 

spring. soNGr _ _ . Mendelssohn . 

ML Soprano and' Chorus:: 

TURN THEE (From, "GALLIA'')' .__.... Goutwd 

J2L Chorus: 

soldiers' ghjohhs. (FEojii:"EAUST.")i _ • . . _ Gounod - 

A shorter program devoted to. the worto: of Schubert was found to be most suc- 
cessful. This, enrolled the- services off two- pianists,, and; ai violinist from theEighth Grade 
and a soprano and baritone- from the- community-,, 

SeteiMrt; Program 

1.. Piano,, Four Hknds,.-: 

' unfinished symphony tub 8 in b. minor,... _ . . ScfouJbart 

(a):- ALLEGRO. MODEHATO' 
( b) ; ANDANTE. CON, MBTO, 

2. Readingi 

CHARACTERIZATION OF' SCHCBEHaT- -. 

3.. Chorus: 

( a) WANDERER'S NH5HT' SONG. - 

( b ) IN PEACEFUL. REPOSE. _ " _ ' 

( c ) HEDGE, ROSES - _..-..- 

4. Soprano Solo :: 

BY THE SEA i _ - - - - 

5. Violin Sole* 

AVE MARIA ._----- 

6. Soprano Solo.- 

HARK! HARK THE LARK _ 

7. Baritone Solo: 

THE WANDERER __---- 

8. Chorusi 

(a).WHaiS SYLVTA? - - 

(b>THE ERLKTW3 - 



4 

The following concert was given very successfully by the different grades of a 
Grammar School, assisted by a Girls' Chorus from the entire school. 

Miscellaneous Program 

1. Pianot 

festival march. ....... Flagler 

2. Fourth Grade Class.- 

(a) WITH FIFE AND DRUM ...... Karle 

(b) THERE WAS AN OLD WOMAN ..... Jarois 

3. Girls' Chorus: 

(a) Santa LUCIA. ..... Neapolitan Air 

(b) merry life ........ Denza 

4. Second Grade Class: 

mother goose melodies , . . . - - Gaynor 

TO MARKET 
LITTLE BO PEEP 
HUMPTY DUMPTY 
LITTLE MISS MUFFET 
OLD KING COLE 

5. SolO: 

ANGUS MAC DONALD ....... Roeckel 

6. Sixth Grade Class: 

(a) PILGRIM'S CHORUS ( Froni'TANNHAUSER' ). . . . Wagner 

(b) WATER LILLIES ' . . . . . . . Linden 

7. SolO: 

little sandman ....... Brahms 

8. Girls' Chorus: 

(a) ANVIL CHORUS ....... Verdi 

(b) NEW AMERICAN HYMN ...... Soulee 

The following program was given at the meeting of the National Educational 

Association held in Chicago, July, 1912, by 1400 children of the Chicago Elementary 

"Schools. There were three schools represented, each contributing one group, and 

all joining in four grand chorus numbers, at the beginning, middle and end of the 

program. Chorus Concert 

1. Grand Chorus: 

American hymn ......... Keller 

2. Chorus: 

(a) the two grenadiers .... Robert Schumann 

(b) ONE SUMMER MORN. ...... GoetZ 

3. Grand Chorus.- 

(a) patriot's prayer ..... .Edward Grieg 

(b) cradle song ...... Win. Taubert 

4. Chorus: 

(a) BARCAROLLE (From "TALES OF HOFFMAN") . . J Offenbach 

< b) SLUMBER SONG OF THE RIVER ( From "JOCELYN") . Jt. Godard 

5. Grand Chorus: 

GOD EVER GLORIOUS ..... Alex. Lwoff 

A MERRY LIFE ....... Denza 

6. Chorus : 

(a) from a railway carriage . . . Henry K. Hadley 

(b) the night wind ..... Henry K. Hadley 

7. Grand Chorus: 

(a) the song of a thousand years . . Henry C. Work 

(b) STAR SPANGLED BANNER ...... Smith 

The last program is indicative of the scope of the work to be done in larger com- 
munities, where it is possible to use the combined efforts of several schools.The short- 
er programs given are more adapted to the requirements of the smaller communities; 
but in all, there is evidence of the possibilities of Eighth Grade chorus singing and 
the opportunity it presents for satisfactory public work and gratifying cooperation with 
the community. 



(bi 



Megel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 93 

( Class Letter and No 



ante 

( Account No... 

'Own State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

}• At what period in the school year is it reasonable to suppose that a public con- 
cert can be given by the Eighth Grade chorus? 



i. Should there be special preparation for this concert, or should the regular music 
study throughout the year be sufficient preparation for this event? 



*• Name four composers whose works would be appropriate material both for study 
and concert programs 



i. In what way is it possible to enlist the interest of the professional musicians of 
the community? 







• 







S. Is this musical reciprocity between school and community of value?. 



6. What is the particular value of a printed program?. 



7. How can this public concert be planned to co-operate with the other departments 
of the school? 






8. What is the object in raising such concerts by the Eighth Grade Chorus from 
the purely musical, to the more broadly educational plane of effort? 



I 



9. Give your own opinion of the value to be obtained from one or two public 

concerts a year 

• . . 



10. (a) Are more than two or three such affairs advisable?. 



(b) Give reasons for your answer. 



11. If you have given any musical programs, either by your grade or by the school, 
in general, give a brief description of one, including the program, if possible.. 



In- the -spaces- below, marked "Q 1,"- "Q 2,"- etc., you- may -ask.; questions ' 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will ' be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q:i -..■ 



Aniwer 



Q.2.. 



Answer 



Q. 3.. 



Answer 



Q. 4. 



Answer 



q. i. 



Answer 



EIGHTH GRADE SEFtlES J 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, HI. 

A. COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N? 94 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Special National Programs 

Under certain conditions, or in certain enviroments, it is of ten desirable to give 
a progTam of national songs, or one comprising the folk songs of various nations. The 
folk songs of all the old world countries are extremely interesting, and there is in 
the native song literature of any European country an abundance of material for a 
fine program. 

If it chances that in your neighborhood there are a considerable number of peo- 
ple of any one nationality, such as Irish, Scotch, German, English, Swedish or 
Italian, or if there are individuals connected with the school work in any way who 
are of foreign parentage, it will be very pleasant and profitable to work up a pro- 
gram of the folk songs of that country, together with some of the songs or instru- 
mental numbers of the composers of that country. Many such programs have been 
given with great success. It adds interest if a special number, such as,i Lullaby or 
other characteristic song, is given in native costume, and such costume can be made 
easily of simple material at very small cost. 

"Folk- dancing" has been made a very vital part of the physical culture work in 
the schools, especially for girls. These folk dances correlate so well with the stud- 
ies in folk songs, that one or two such numbers can be added to the program very 
effectively. The Phonograph Companies have made records of all the best known 
folk dances of all countries, so that it is now possible to accompany these dances 
with appropriate music correctly played, and thus make them practical for general 
school and playground use. The folk dances of these foreign countries are marvel- 
ously interesting and fit in splendidly with such a public program. 

The stereopticon may also be brought into use, as there are many slides ob- 
tainable giving the life, occupations and typical costumes of the people in al- 
most all these countries, and also views of the cities, mountains, lakes, etc. There 
is a possibility also that some of the residents of the community may have trav- 
eled in the country under discussion, and will be glad to give the children a short 
talk on their experience, illustrating it with pictures which they themselves have taken. 

Thus it is possible to make the music study correlate closely with the stud- 
ies in literature, history and geography, and if properly .managed, these programs 

Copyright MCMXIII by Sieg-el -Myers Correspondence Schoo:. of Music 



2 

may be made the most interesting' events of the year. Make it your ambition to 
have the music help in everything, and it will thus become the center of every 
school activity. 

The music and directions for the dancing may be obtained from the "Folk 
Dances and Singing- Games" by Burchenal, published by G. Schirmer Co., Bos- 
ton, Mass., and either the gymnastic teacher, or someone else in the community, 
will probably be able to teach some of the children a Scotch Reel, the Highland 
Fling, an Irish Jig, the German Klap Danz, a Spanish Dance, or an Italian or 
Russian Folk Dance. These folk dances are so largely used in calisthentic 
work that you should have no difficulty in getting special assistance for any of 
your programs. 

Do not fail to utilize on these public programs any talent for solo singing 
which may have developed in your class, and give duetts, trios or other small group- 
singing, as special numbers. Utilize also any instrumental talent which may be 
found among the members of the class. 

The following two special programs have been given successfully by Eighth 
Grade choruses, one a program of Norwegian music, and the other a program of 
English, Scotch, Irish, and Welsh Folk Songs They were given with appropriate 
embellishments of costume, folk dance, national flags, and stage decorations in the 
national colors, with the national flower and emblem also in evidence. The national 
hymns or songs of nearly all European nations may be found in "Songs of all Lands" 
by W. S. B. Mathews, published by the American Book Company. 

Norwegian Program 

1. Chorus: 

Charles John, our brave king Norwegian National Hymn 

2. Chorus: 

herd boy's call Norioegian Folk Song 

3. Group of Girls: 

NORWEGIAN FOLK DANCE 

4. Chorus: 

(a) LAST NIGHT THE NIGHTINGALE WOKE ME - - Kjerulf 

(b) haakon's cradle song Grieg 

5. Soprano Solo: 

(ii) in the boat Grieg 

(b) a swan Grieg 

6. Chorus: 

(a) MY DEAR OLD MOTHER Grieg 

(b) the chow Grieg 

7. Group of Girls: 

NORWEGIAN FOLK DANCE 

8. Chorus: 

the vikings Faning 

P. S. L- K9 94. 



Program of Folk Songs of the British Isles 



3. 



4. 



5. 



Chorus: 




(a) RULE BRITTANIA 


. English 


(b) SCOTS WHA HAE 


Scotch 


Chorus: 




(ii) MINSTREL BOY 


. English 


(b) MEN OF HARLECH 


. . Welsh 


(«) FLOW GENTLY, SWEET AFTON . . 


Scotch 


Solo Dance: 




SCOTTISH HIGHLAND FLING 




Chorus: 




(a) I LOVE A LASSIE 


Scotch 






(c) COMIN' THRO THE RYE 


Irish 


Chorus: 




(a) WEARING OF THE GREEN . . . . 


Irish 


(b) LOCH LOMOND 


Scotch 


(o) AULD LANG SYNE 


Irish 



The following song "Ye Banks and Braes"can be used in such a program of Brit- 
ish Folk Songs as suggested, or might be effectively employed in a program devoted 
entirely to Scotch music. 



YE BANKS AND BRAES 



ROBERT BURNS 

Slowly 

a i SOPRANO 



OLD SCOTTISH MELODY 



I 



m 



M SL =m 



& 



r i 



1 Ye banks 
(alto 



and braes 



bon 



nie Doon, How 




crvsc 



can ye bloom sae fresh and fair? How can ye chaunt, ye 

. uj > mp 




see the rose and wood -bine twine, When "il - ka bird sang 



Site : >o. Hue - have. 






n * n^fJ'^r^^ ypp 



tt 



Ht 



tie birds, And I 
P 



sae wea - ry, 
rail 



it 



i T 

o' care? Thou It 



^^ffid^ I i j j, r I. 



as 



its love, And fond - ly sae did I o'mine. Wi 



T"7 bd 



^ 



P 



tf J 4 



J Ji J — i 



=F^ 



my 



break 



heart, 



thou war - bling- bird, That 



Wm 



mm 



s 



# 



^ 



light - some heart 



pud 



a rose 



Fu' 



ffi£ 



si 



^ 



p i r J— E L^g 



tfHjia i Trn 



$L « H .h J =g 



W 



■t 



s 



* 



#-— w 



1 — e. r p 

, Thou mind'stmi 



il 



wan- tons thro' the flow -'ry thorn 



me o» de 



W 



J' J m n JU— *^% ^^ 



f 



sweet up - on 



its thorn - y tree, , But my fause lov - er 
dim m . ™» 

ff ■ „ =S= -Ji— g-- -* 





Fu' sfttn. Ilkn s every. Wi' » with. Pu'd -pulled. Fause , false. 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 94 

., ( Class Letter and No. 

Name J 

, Account No, 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1. Under what circumstances is it desirable to give programs of national or folk songs? 



■ 



2. Describe fully how these programs may be made interesting, discussing the use of stage 
decorations, costumes, folk dancing, etc 







3. In what way can special programs of this nature be made to correlate with the History 
and Geography classes ? 






4. In what way may the stereopticon and the phonograph be used to enhance the value of 



the program ? 



: 














- 


■ 





5. How is it possible to have special folk dances on such national programs?. 









6. Are folk dances given in the calisthenic work in your school ? 



7. How may the individual talents of the class, both instrumental and vocal, be used in 

these special programs ? 

■ 








\'j .vtnA 






8. If you have given any national program in your school give an outline below of the 
material included in this program 









• •••••••••••••••■■■•• ••■•••••••••■••••••■•• • 

If you have not done this, give an outline of what you would consider an appropriate- 
English program 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to leaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 



Answer 

Q. i 

Answer 



Q. 3., 



Answer 



0. 4 



Answer 



Q. 5. 



Answer 



EIGHTH GRADE SERIES | 

SIEGEL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS IN 

public school music Lesson N9 95 

BY FRANCES E. CLARK 

Enunciation Exercises 
Shading and Expression 

Any choral singing, whether of adults or children, takes on added beauty from 
good quality of tone, precision of attack, perfect rhythmic swing and the distinctness 
with which the words are understood, as well as the gradation of tone power, from 
soft to loud, or vice versa, to express the varying moods of the words. 

Clear pronunciation is easily obtained by taking care to articulate the consonants 
of the words. The vowels may be sustained but the consonants must be clearly and 
crisply enunciated. Special exercises should be given to develop limberness and flex- 
ibility of the lip muscles in order to produce clear enunciation. Many couplets are use- 
ful in bringing together certain words with initial consonants which are difficult to 
pronounce, or whose final consonants are often dropped. The familiar verse "Peter 
Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, And a peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper 
picked" is excellent lip work; also the sentence "Round the rugged rocks the rag- 
ged rascal ran" is good. 

In Lesson N9 80 we learned how to pantomime the words of a poem for the 
development of lip effort, and there is nothing better than this exercise for the cul- 
tivation of distinct pronunciation. We also learned in Lesson N° 75 to chant the al- 
phabet softly, taking special pains to pronounce each letter clearly and distinctly. 
Both of these exercises should be reviewed frequently, always with perfect free- 
dom and relaxation of the vocal chords. While the effort is focused on the lips, there 
must be absolutely no strain in the throat. 

Now take each consonant in turn and place it before the different vowel sounds 
in the following order, Bee, Baye, Bah, Bo, Boo,_ DeejDayejDafyDoXJoo,. Fee, Faye, 
Fah,Fo, Foo, etc., using all the consonants except C, X and Z. Sing some of these 
groups on a single tone and others on different tones of the scale. For instance, take the 
tone series of the tonic chord Do, Mi, Sol, Mi, Do, and sing Bee, Baye, Bah, Bo, 
Boo, one syllable to each tone, using great care to enunciate the consonants clearly, 
but to sing softly. 

Now take the tone series Re, Fa, La, Fa, Re and sing on it the syllables Kee, 

Copyright MCMXIII !>y Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 



2 

Kaye, Kah, Ko, Koo. On the chord grour}Mi,Sol t Ti,Sol,Mi sing- Dee,Daye,Dah,Do,Doo. 

On the chord group Fa, La, Do, La, Fa sing Fee, Faye, Fah,Fo,Foo. Use all the other 
consonants in the same manner, giving J the sound of Y, but omit G, X, and Z. 

Many times the thought of the word or phrase demands a varying tone power, 
that is, variety in expression. These degrees of tone power, or Dynamics, are indica- 
ted by a series of terms, or letters which are abbreviations of these terms which 
are called, expression marks, or marks of expression. When the thought of the 
word or phrase demands a soft tone, this is indicated by the letter p, the first 
letter of the term Piano ,meanmg a soft or light tone. Sometimes we wish to sing 
a word or phrase very softly and this is indicated by pp, indicating Piaviissimo. If 
we wish to sing in a medium tone, the music is marked mf or Mezzo-forte. If the 
tone must be loud,it is marked f or Forte. If it be desired that we sing very loud, 
the mark is ff or Fortissimo. 

There are many other marks referring to the tone power, such as, Crescendo, 
abbreviated Ores., meaning to increase the tone power gradually; and Diminuendo, 
abbreviated Dim., meaning to decrease the tone power gradually. These terms are 

often represented by marks, as ~ fnr Crescendo, and^rr==— for Diminuendo. 

Special emphasis on certain notes is indicated by >or fz, the abbreviationof/brsaw- 
do. Other terms referring to changes in tempo are: Ballentando, abbreviated Rail., 
meaning to sing slower and softer,- Bitard, abbreviated Bit., meaning to sing in a 
slower tempo; Tempo or A tempo, meaning to return to the original time; Acceler- 
ando, abbreviated Accel., meaning to hasten the time, singing a little faster. The mean- 
ings of other terms often used, are as follows: Adagio, slow; Largo, very slow,- Agitato, 
in a disturbed, agitated manner; Allegro, cheerful, quick; Andante, a moderate tempo; 
Animato, animated; Da capo, abbreviated D. C, repeat from the beginning (literally 
from the head); Dal Segna, abbreviated D. S. return to the sign (%) and sing from 
there; Cadence, the close of a strain or piece of music; Cantab He , in a singing 
style; Barcarolle, 3. boat song; Bolero, Spanish dance in animated rhythm. 

The pupil should be made familiar with all the marks of expression and terms 
which indicate the different movements and tempi of a composition. Many of these 
we have used from time to time, but this knowledge should now be put together 
and studied in the table given above. 

The following songs are excellent material for studies in dynamics, and in 
giving them you should pay special attention to all the expression marks indicated, 
as explained in this lesson. 

p. S. M. No 95. 



WHEN EVENING'S TWILIGHT 



Andante 

I 



J. L. HATTON 
Arr. by A. L. COWLEY 






¥ 



When eve-ning's twi-light gath-ers round, When ev-'ry flow'r is hush'd to rest; 



tffj J I- 1 J' J' Jilj. J, j J' I J. ^ J. J,IM J » 






i=f 



When Au-tumn shades breathe not a sound, And ev-'ry bird flies to its nest; 



tff J.|J- J. ^ ^B J, J j r jrj J-] I J t Jrj-r 



f^v f the re i n u\ n 



¥ 



m 



& 



When dew-drops kiss the blush-ing rose; When stars are glitt-ring in the sky; 



I ) v JM J. Ji J' >fll^ ^ 



#1 



rf«» .„«fc/c« 



jfi.'^ A ^ Jnfr P 



l#p^ 



When Na-ture's self seeks sweet re-pose, Sing a gen-tle lul-la-by, A gen-tlelul-la- 




Silver Song' Scries No. 8. Permission of Silver BurdetteA Co. 



STRONG AS MIGHTY WATERS 



i 



Maestoso 



K J J 



SPOHR 



f 



wa - ters Leap - ing to the shore, 
zeph - yrs In the sun - light play, 

an - them Na - ture ev - er sings, 



r 



1. Strong as might - y 

2. Soft as sum-mer 

3. We will join the 



P-J. i j- .w-i 



iP-P-i 



i 



M^ 




iH 



•* f ; p r r t r 



i 



Deep as o - cean sigh - ing, Dread as thun - der's roar; 
Sweet - ly as the even - ing Rest - eth aft - er day; 

Heav'n-ward raise our voic - es, Borne on grate - ful wings; 



mm 



i- i i i 



w^ 



r rrjni 



ppf 



f 5 ^ 



i 



Mu-sics glo-rious sound 
Mu-sic's heav'n-ly sound 
Up-ward shall we gaze, 



Ech-oes all a - round, 
Shedssweetpeacea - round, 
While our song we raise; 



1PP 



mm 



-&—* 

Ech - oes all a - 
Sheds sweet peace a - 
While our song we 



t 



Mu - sic's glo-rious sound 
Mu-sic's heav'n-ly sound 
Up-ward shall we gaze, 

ff\ J J 




Mu - sic's glo - rious sound Ech - oes all a 

Mu " sic's heav'n - ly sound Sheds sweet peace a 

Up - ward shall we gaze, While our song we 



round, 
round, 
raise. 



^£- 



J£- 



m 



r~r^j 



round, Mu - sic's sound 

round, Mu - sic's sound 

raise; Up - ward gaze, 

Silver Son"* Series No. 8. Permission of Silver Burdette & Co. 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 95 

VI ( Class Letter and No. 

Name J 

Account No 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. 

If you are teaching in the grade to which this lesson refers, please answer these questions 

from your own experience, as far as possible. 

1. In what two important ways should the teacher strive to improve the chorus singing?.. 



2. Give two reasons why the observation of expression marks and clear enunciation are 



essential to good singing 



3. (a) How is clear enunciation obtained?. 







(b) Which, in your opinion, is the more important element in clear pronunciation, the 
vowels or the consonants? 



4. Give two exercises which the teacher can use to develop limberuess and flexibility of the 



lip muscles 










5. What is the value of pantomiming the words of a poem?. 



6. Why is freedom and relaxation of the vocal chords essential to clear enunciation?. 



7. How is it possible to reflect the mood of the words of the song in the tone color or 
quality of the voice ? 



8. Give a general discussion of the necessity for the observation of dynamics. 



• 






9. Give the abbreviation and explanation of the following terms : — 



Term. 


Abbreviation. 


Meaning. 


Fortissimo 






Diminuendo . . . 






Rallentando . 






Ritard 






Accelerando ... . 






Crescendo .... 






Forzando 






Dal Segno . . . 










In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you ma> ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 



Answer 



Q. 2. 



Answer 



0. 3. 



Answer 



0. 4. 



Aniwer 



Q. 5. 



Answer 



EIGHTH GKADE SEMES 

SILGLL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, III. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS 

IN PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC 

By FRANCES E. CLARK LeSSOn No. 96 

Music in the Adolescent Period. 

In the Eighth Grade comes the end of childhood and the dawning of 
youth. The child's whole nature is in a state of upheaval and unrest; it is 
the time when the chum idea is foremost; queer tastes and friendships are 
formed, and the mind of the boy and girl is bewildered by sudden whims, 
vague impulses, strong likes and dislikes, and the struggle with inarticulate 
expression. There comes the development of an eager desire for intimate 
friendship, and cliques and circles throughout the Eighth Grade are rife. 

Now, what has all this to do with school music? It has everything to do 
with it, for the wise teacher will realize that these freaks, fancies and emo- 
tions of our growing boy and girl must be properly used and cultivated, and 
not laughed at, ignored or turned aside. They are the outgrowth of the 
development of the most sacred phases of life, and so must be shielded, 
nurtured, respected, controlled and guided. Outside of the influence of the 
members of the family upon the child, music is, at once the best, purest, 
sweetest and safest of all the agencies in the home, church or school for the 
control and the correct effervescence of this emotional growth. If children 
at this age can be taught to enjoy good music, it will prove a great boon and 
safeguard. By this we mean largely choral singing, not so much the individ- 
ual study of the voice or any instrument. It is the inspiration of the large 
number that makes the influence one of uplift. It is the spirit of "get to- 
gether"— the "team work" of the different parts which gives the uplift, the 
pouring ou t Q f self, the feeling of brotherly love and community of interest 
that help the youth to poise and self-control. 

Here, then, is where music becomes a powerful instrument for the better- 
ment of the child, and if the teacher is wise in the selection and analysis of 
the songs and choruses used, the music study becomes a most powerful instru- 

COPYRIGHT, MCMXIII, DV 6IEOEL-MYER8 CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL OF MUSIC 



ment in preserving this poise and self-respect of the child. Here they can best 
be taught that love is beautiful, pure and sweet, and nowhere on earth can that 
lesson be more beautifully taught than through the old tender songs of love. 
It is the novel-reading age of the girl, and the time of the yellow-backed, 
hair-raising detective stories and frontier tales for the boy- If our music is 
to help as vitally as it should, we must deal directly and without fear with 
these elements. Brought out into the open, trimmed, cultivated and pruned, 
these forces open out into plants of strength and beauty; — left in the dark 
of sly references, veiled hints and fearsome uncertainty, they become sickly, 
unhealthful parasites which sap the wholesomeness of the most natural forces of 
mind and body. 

Let us choose songs, then, with this thought in mind — songs of vigorous, 
even boisterous life, songs of the sea, of warfare, and Patriotism, and the 
sweet old love soiigs of the early generations, not the foolish, light ditties 
of musical comedy or the vaudeville stage. There should not be admitted 
to the schoolroom a single song which ridicules love, or treats it lightly or 
flippantly. By skillful anafysis and tender, respectful treatment, train the 
children to think that love is not a joke, but the most serious and beautiful 
thing in the world. 

There are any number of beautiful old folk-songs and ballads which can 
be used by the teacher at this time. Take, for instance, the familiar song 
"Robin Adair". Tell the story of how Lady Caroline Kepple, when travel- 
ing, was delayed through a mishap to the coach, and how she was assisted 
by a young doctor, Robin Adair, who chanced that way. Tell of how they 
fell in love, but her parents objected on account of the young man's poverty 
and obscure position, and packed their daughter off to France, where she 
was ready to die of grief; of how the parents relented, and the two were 
finally married and ' 'lived happily ever after' ' . This song was written during 
her exile. After telling the story, sing or read the words to the children 
"What's this dull town to me? Robin's not here". Make them see the 
lonely, heartsick girl, grieving for the absent lover. Then going further, ask 
what makes anyplace a ''Heaven on earth?" What is meant by "Joy and 
pride"? What was the "Assembly dance"? What tales had evidently been 
told her that she wailed "But, now thou'rt cold to me"? What is the sig- 
nificance of the reiteration of the name Robin Adair? 



Make it clear that it is only real worth and respect that can call forth 
a real love, and in treating a song like this, be wholly serious, not jesting; 
do not treat the matter lightly or as a bit of folly, but as a beautiful picture 
of pure affection. 

Boys and girls turn quickly from sickly sentimentality, but are held 
spellbound by real sentiment, if presented in a reverent way. Having 
brought out the meaning of the words and phrases, now make them give it 
back to you in their singing. Bring out every shade and varying bit of 
expression, but do not overdo it. Be careful not to verge too near the 
edge of sentimentality, but make them give to you every drop of real feeling 
which they can conceive. 

Take, again, Shakespeare's famous song "Hark, Hark, the Lark". Explain 
that it is an "Aubade", or morning song — an old custom once used in France 
and imported to England, wherein the lover awakens his loved one, in the 
same way that a serenade is used to bid her a fond good-night. In his tragedy 
"Cymballine", Shakespeare makes the lover sing this beautiful morning song. 
Bring out the meaning of the song by judicious questioning and analysis, as 
usual. What is meant by the lark singing at "Heaven's gate"? Who or 
what is "Phoebus"? What are the "steeds"? What are "Marybuds" ? 
What is a "chalice," etc? 

Tell the story of how the great composer, Schubert, being very fond of 
the writings of Shakespeare, chanced one day to meet a friend in a restau- 
rant, who had a volume opened to this rare gem of poetry. "Ah!" said he, 
"that would make a fine song," and turning the menu card over he wrote 
this beautiful lyric to which the words have always since been sung. 

Having thus established the atmosphere for the poem, bring out how it 
should be sung. Sing it lightly at first, for we do not wish to waken the 
fair one rudely. 

How would you sing "Arise" to such a one? Sing it as your father 
might call you for breakfast. Sing it as an angry old gentleman might say it 
when you inadvertently sat on his best silk hat. Sing it sadly as your 
mother might call you when you were to move out of the old home; or sing 
it gleefully as your chum might on Fourth of July morning. 

You will find that the children instantly respond to these suggestions of 



mood and will enjoy the variety of expression they require. Now sing it softly, 
sweetly and lovingly as the young man in the poem, — now stronger, as the word 
is repeated, but still with love in every tone, and with a carrying quality 
that will reach up and through the window, and really awaken the sleeping girl. 
It is easy to bring out by suggestion the inner content of the poem, the 
appreciation of which will become deeper as the children grow older. 

Another admirable ballad for use at this time is the old Scotch Folk- 
song "Annie Laurie". Various questions may be asked to bring out the 
interpretation of the song, such as, What is meant by "Maxwelton's braes"? 
Why does the dew fall early? What promise was given? What is "bonnie"? 
Was the singer sincere in saying "I'd lay me down and die?" Would not 
a true, brave man anywhere give his life if his loved one were in real 
danger? Was she more fair than others, or only so in his estimation? What 
charm is there in a low, sweet voice? Is a harsh, loud, course or rough voice 
indicative of a like nature? 

In connection with this song, read the poem of Bayard Taylor, begin- 
ning "Give us a song, the soldiers cried," and talk for a moment of the 
influence of this ballad upon the soldiers in the Civil War. It is probably 
more universally sung than any song in the world, because its sentiment is 
so pure, and because each one can imagine his own "Annie Laurie". Now, 
tell the children to sing it so that they can make you feel that they know 
Annie Laurie, that she was just a sweet, true girl like your girls, and that 
the boys in your class feel that same respect for true womanhood every- 
where, which, is expressed in the song. 

In some such way take many songs, such as, "Juanita," "My Pretty 
Jane," "Flow Gently, Sweet Afton," "Drink to Me Only with Thine Eyes," 
"Believe Me If All Those Endearing Young Charms," and bring out in each, 
the thought that real charm is of the mind and spirit, rather than beauty of 
figure and face, and that age does not dim a real love, but only enhances it. 

Make the music the most vital part of the child's school life at this 
critical period, and you will have the satisfaction of knowing that your 
work will live on in the lives of the ennobled young people who have had 
your. training. 



Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 96 

^ ( Class Letters and No 

( Account No 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. Fill in "Account No.'* only if it appears on your Lesson Ticket. 
Unless otherwise specified, all Illustrations and Exercises mentioned in this examination paper 
. . . refer to illustrations and Exercises given in the accompanying; lesson. 

'■• Why is Public School Music a vital influence in the adolescent period of the child's 
llfe? • • 



Why is choral singing a particularly uplifting factor at this time?. 



What ideas and principles can the teacher instill through a wise selection and analysis 
of songs and choruses used in the Eighth Grade? 







4. (a) What kind of songs should be chosen at this period?. 



(A) What kind of songs should be avoided?. 



5.** Give a brief analysis of some familiar song, which you think would be good material 
to use in the Eighth Grade 



6. In what respect must the teacher be particulary careful, when making an analysis of love 
songs?, Discuss fully 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 



An»wer 



Q. 2. 



Answer 



Q. 3.. 



Answer 



Q. 4.. 



.Answer 



0. 1. 



Answer 



EIGHTH GRADE SERIES 

SILGLL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, 111. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS 

IN PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC 

By FRANCES E. CLARK Lesson No. 97 

Music History in the Eighth Grade. 

National Characteristics in Foi,k Music. 

A definite study of Music History with text-book and regular recita- 
tions is, of course, impossible in the music work of the Eighth Grade, but 
the boys and girls, many of whom will never go farther in their school life 
than the Eighth Grade, should here be given the salient facts of the growth 
and development of music, in connection with their chorus work. 

There is no subject of more absorbing interest than the story of music from 
its beginning down to the present time, and these young people, just at the ro- 
mantic period of their lives, will enjoy brief glimpses into the niusic of the past, 
and short interesting stories of how music came to be and what it is today. 
Their general reading will contain many references to music, and an intelligent 
understanding of at least the main features of the development of music can be 
given in occasional ten-minute talks in the class-room, and will be of the great- 
est interest and benefit to them. Just how to give an interesting resume of so 
large a subject in so brief a period, and keep within the limits of their youthful 
understanding, is indeed a problem, but you will find that by incorporating your 
instruction in the form of lectures, somewhat like the model lecture on "Folk- 
Songs" which follows, the material presented in this lesson, and in Lesson 
No. 98, can be made to serve your purpose admirably. 

I,et us begin the presentation of this historical study by following one 
of the fundamental laws of pedagogy, i. e., "proceed from the known to the re- 
lated unknown." The folk-songs of several nations have been learned in the 
Seventh and Eighth Grades, and we can begin with them and make them links 
to take us back to the beginning of music in other older countries than our own. 
After singing one or more of the folk-songs mentioned, the lecture, or talk can 
be given to the pupils in somewhat the following fashion: 

COPYRIGHT, MCMX1II, BY SIEOEl-MYERS CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL OF MUSIC 



The folk-songs in all countries have grown up from the people 
themselves. . Nobody knows who wrote them or how they first came 
to be sung, and they are so very old that they reach back into pre- 
historic times. Now, most of these old folk-songs had their origin in 
the folk-dance or game, where the people gave expression to their 
emotions by action, or pantomime, hand clapping, stamping and 
singing, all at the same time. We have a survival of this idea in the 
singing games which you all played in the kindergarten. These 
primitive peoples used to act out their work and their ceremonies, 
and so we, as children, used to play the familiar action games which 
you all know. Well known examples of these games are, ' 'This is 
the Way We Wash Our Clothes", ' 'Here Comes a Duke A-riding", 
"London Bridge", "Here We Go 'round the Mulberry Bush", 
"Happy is the Miller", "The Needle's Eye". These are all rem- 
nants of ceremonies and customs which people acted out and sang 
hundreds of years ago, and which, through the generations, have 
come down to us in the form in which we use them. 

The songs, games and dances of the different nations are as 
different as the people who use them ; thus, the Swedish games and 
songs are different from the French; the German from the Italian; 
the English from the Russian. Each country has developed its own 
particular song, just as it has its own particular sort of life. These 
differences are often influenced by the climate and topography of the 
country itself. The wild, rugged mountains, the long, cold winters, 
and the hardy fishing and sea life of the people of the Northern 
countries have developed an entirely different character in the native 
song from that of sunny Italy, where the warm climate, the long 
sunny days, the out-of-door life, and careless freedom of the open de- 
veloped a passionate nature and free, unrestrained self-expression. 

The mystic, loving, high-minded Scotch, brought a beautiful 
ideal of love into song, and, indeed, the love songs of Scotland are 
the finest in the world. The religious fervor of the German, com- 
bined with his love of home and children, give us the most beautiful 
hymns, chorals, wonderful child songs and simple songs of the home 
life. In Russia, the music of the peasant bespeaks sorrow, thralldom 
and the terrors of Siberia, and is generally minor, sad and tragic. 
The Swedish songs are peaceful and domestic, reflecting the agricul- 

2 



tural and manufacturing pursuits of a naturally contented and pros- 
perous people. 

The Irish people, on the other hand, are most often fun loving 
and rollicking, but are sometimes sad, and with their volatile, Celtic 
temperament, are always ready for a good fight or tender love mak 
ing. These characteristics are reflected in their songs. 

The English are more dominant, and often express their patriot- 
ism and loyalty to Prince or King in their songs. 

Now, let us trace these traits through some of the songs we 
know. Take, for instance, the Italian "Santa Lucia". This folk- 
song is peaceful and beautiful, given in the rocking rhythm of the 
gondolier's song. Many of the best known bits of Italian opera are 
derived from old folk-songs, and so they have become familiar to 
us in "II Trovatore, " "Rigoletto" and the older operas of Donizetti 
and Bellini. 

Among the German folk-songs we recall instantly to mind the 
"Luther's Hymn", which is an adaptation of an old folk-song, and the 
familiar "Loreley", and "The Silent Night". The Russian folk-song 
"Red Sarafan" and the old Swedish game songs "Reap the Flax" 
and "Carrousel" represent most clearly the national characteristics of 
these peoples. We can see plainly the characteristics of the Irish in 
"The Harp That Once Thro' Tara's Halls", "The Wearing of the 
Green", "Believe Me If All Those Endearing Young Charms". 

The Scotch Songs are perhaps best known of all, and the familiar 
"Battle of Bannockburn", "Scots Wha Hae", "Wha'll Be King but 
Charlie", "Come Under My Plaidie", and "Comin' Thro' the Rye" 
are all typical of the sturdy, misty Scottish highlands. Among the 
Old English may be remembered the singing games "King William 
was King James' Son, " "Ronald" and "The Wraggle Taggle Gyp- 
sies, 0". From Norway we have the "Herd Boy's Call", "Haakon's 
Cradle Song"; and many of Grieg's songs are the old folk melodies 
provided with a new harmonic dress. 

It is interesting to find points of similarity, as well as points of 
difference, among all of these old songs, but a careful analysis and 
study of them would show that they all come from a common begin- 
ning, just as all of our languages come from a common tongue. 

The famous Neapolitan barcarolle, or boat song, "Santa Lucia," which fol- 
lows, will be a pleasing illustration of this lesson. 

3 



SANTA LUCIA 



Translated from the Italian 

Madera to 



Neapolitan Boat-Song* 



•7 *f 



4 



Moon - light, so sweet and pale, From hea-ven fall - ing; 

Soft winds that come and go, Cool-ness are bring - ing, 

O joy ^to lie £rt rest, Drift - ing and dream -ing, 

J'. kil l\ 



s TOi i 



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mm 



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'Mia t 



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Wave - lets that mur - mur low, To us are call - ing. 

Bear - ing on gen - tie wings Ech - oes of sing - ing. 

On o-cean's peace- ful breast, Neath moon-light gleam- ing! 



s^ 



m 



ill 



^m 



im 



p m 



W 



W 



^m 



4 



SP 



ii 



ite is the sum-mer night: Sum-mer sea, sil -'verbrie 



£ 



White is the sum-mer night; Sum-mer sea, sil -'ver bright. 
Waits the light - boat for thee, Float o'er the waves with me. 
Bride of the sum-mer sea, Na-ples, thy child to be! 




San - ta 
San - ta 
San - ta 



Lu - 
Lu - 
Lu - 



tei - 
ci - 
ci - 



San - ta Lu 
San - ta Lu 
San - ta Lu 



ci 
ci 
ci 



a! 
a! 
a! 



m 



ifeHsB 



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^S 



mm 



-rail 



^^ 



Modern Mubic Series Book III. 
Permission of Silver Burdette & Cor, 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 97 

^ I Class Letters and No 

( Account No 

Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. Fill in "Account No." only if it appears on your Lesson Ticket. 

Unless otherwise specified, all Illustrations and Exercises mentioned in this examination paper 

refer to illustrations and Exercises given in the accompanying: lesson. 

!• Why is it desirable that the pupils in the Eighth Grade should have some knowledge 
of Music History? 



2- What is the best way in which the teacher can give instruction in this subject?. 



3- Should the examinations on the subject be oral or written?. 



4. What is the most effective means of introducing the lessons in Music History? Discuss fully : 



5. What is the origin of the Folk Song? 



6. Of what are the singing games of the present day a survival?. 



7. What influence do the topography and occupations of a country have upon the character 
of its Folk Songs ? 



S. Give the characteristics of the folk music and one Folk Song of the following nations : 
Germany .' 



Scotland 



Russia 



Sweden 

■ 



Ireland 



England 



Italy 



9 - If you have been able to use this lesson as suggested, give a report of your success in 
arousing an interest in the class for the subject of Music History. 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

0. l 



Answer 



0. 2. 



Answer 



Q. 3. 



Answer 



Q. 4. 



Answer 



Q. S. 



Answer 






EIGHTH GRADE SERIES 

SILGLL- MYERS 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, III. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS 

IN PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC . 

By FRANCES E. CLARK LeSSOn No. 98 

Music History in the Eighth Grade (Continued) 

EARLY SCALES; ORIGIN OF INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL FORM; 
DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY AND MODERN MUSIC. 

The material contained in this lesson is enough for several short talks or 
lectures to the class. Each topic can be elaborated according to the opportunity 
presented. You can read more on these subjects in any good encyclopedia or 
history of music. "Outlines of Music History" by Clarence Hamilton {Oliver 
Ditson & Co.), is a most interesting treatment of the subject, and "How Music 
Came to Be" by Hannah Smith {Charles Scribner & Co .) can be read with much 
profit. 

Early Scales 

We see in the songs of the people, or Folk-songs, the key to the 
beginning of all music, which is the scale. We find that there are 
other forms of scales that have been in use, besides the one which we 
know at the present day, as, for example, the five-tone, or "penta- 
tonic" scale. The syllable "pent" means "five" and "tonic" means 
"tone". On this scale, the well-known Scottish folk-song "Scots' 
Wha Hae" is built. If we examine the song closely, we shall find 
that only five tones of the scale are used, instead of seven. There 
are many other tunes which are written in the same scale, as, for in- 
stance, the familiar Sunday School hymn "There is a Happy Land", 
and the old plantation tune "The Mercy Seat". We can see from 
this, then, that there was a time in the early days of music, of which 
the folk-song is a survival, when our present scale did not exist, and 
that we have in these folk-songs evidence of another and earlier kind 
of music, built according to a different system. 

COPVRIQHT, MCMXIII, BY SIE0EL-MYER8 CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL OF MUSIC 



Origin of Instruments 

As we trace music back to its very beginning, we find that the 
earliest races known, used music in some form or other. It seems 
first to have been used as a sort of chant in their worship of the Sun 
and other gods; later rude instruments of percussion were introduced, 
which were used to lend clamor to the shouts of savage warfare. 
Thus, the earliest instrument of which we have any trace, was a kind 
of drum, made of hollow logs with skins stretched over them. Rattles 
were also used. 

It is related that the god Pan one day accidentally blew into a 
piece of reed and so discovered the pipe form of instrument. In 
binding together several of these reeds of different lengths, he made 
what were called the Pipes of Pan, which led to the making of the 
pipe organ of the present day. The flutes, clarinets and all other 
wood-wind instruments were thus foreshadowed in the Pipes of Pan. 

Legend has it that the god Apollo walking by the riverside, 
heard a sound at his feet, and stooping down, found that it was 
caused by the wind blowing over a membraneous web, stretched 
across an open shell. From this humble beginning came our stringed 
instruments, such as the lyre, which developed into the harp. The 
harp was incorporated into the piano, which at first was merely a 
large harp placed horizontally, with a system of keys attached. 

One day a hunter was running through a forest and caught his 
bow upon a bough of a tree. The string gave out a musical sound, 
and this led to the invention of the viol and all the other stringed 
instruments played with a bow, which we know today as the ' 'violin 
family. " 

These discoveries and developments took place in different parts 
of the world in the early times, and in this way certain instruments 
have always been characteristic of certain nations. Thus, the harp 
had its origin in Egypt, but was taken by the Hebrews to Palestine 
and thence to Europe. Still another form of the harp was developed 
in the British Isles, and has always been the native instrument of 
P. S. 98. 2 



Ireland. The pipes and flutes and all our wood-wind instruments 
also came from Egypt, but the forerunner of the bag -pipes was 
developed in the Isles of Britain, and this peculiar instrument has 
always been used in Scotland. The lyre and lute, the predecessors 
of our mandolin and guitar, were brought from Arabia at the time of 
the Crusades. The violins came from the old crwth used in Wales 
and the rebec in Arabia. The violin was perfected in Italy, the most 
famous being made in Cremona by Stradivarius. The piano, coming 
from the harp by way of the harpsichord and spinnet, was perfected 
in Germany in comparatively recent times. The pipe organ, origi- 
nating in the primitive Pipes of Pan, has come into its highest 
perfection in England and America. 

Musical Form 

Form, as we know it in music, means only the regular pattern, 
according to which different kinds of musical compositions are made, 
very much as we have a regular pattern for a coat, vest, waist or 
skirt. Just as there may be infinite variety in these garments, with 
no two exactly alike, although they all follow the same general 
pattern, so in music, we have room for the development of an infinite 
amount of variety, on the basis of the musical forms or patterns which 
have been accepted as standard, by the composers of the past and 
present. 

Let us first learn something about the Song Form. Nearly all of 
the simpler songs are made by using a phrase or melody — a piece of 
a tune, as it were — and then repeating it, with sometimes a different 
ending. We then add to this a different tune or part, usually in a 
higher pitch, (this part is often used as a chorus) and then end with 
a complete repetition of the first part. This pattern might be ex- 
pressed this way— A: B: A, A representing the first section and B, 
the contrasting division or chorus, as the case may be. 

Let us examine the old familiar song "Believe Me, If All Those 
Endearing Young Charms" and see how this pattern is used. The 
melody which goes with the words, ' 'Believe me, if all those endearing 
P. S. 98. 3 



young charms, Which I gaze on so fondly to-day" is the principal 
tune, or melody. You see that it is repeated exactly, with just a little 
different ending (forming a better cadence, or close) in the lines 
"Were to change by tomorrow and fleet in my arms, Like fairy gifts 
fading away." Then comes the second part, in a higher range: 
"Thou would still be ador'd as this moment thou art, Let thy 
loveliness fade as it will;" and then we return to the first melody in 
the lines ' 'And around the dear ruin each wish of my heart, Would 
entwine itself verdantly still." When we analyze this song in this 
way, we see it is written in accordance with the song-form pattern 
which was just described to you, and which we can express so sim- 
ply as A: B: A. 

Now, if you examine "Swanee River", "Kentucky Home", or 
any of the old hymn tunes you know, you will see that most of them 
conform to this general pattern. 

The early composers used this so-called Song Form, combined 
with the old dances of the common people, such as the waltz, gavotte, 
minuet, polonaise, march, bouree, etc., to make up the different 
parts, or movements of their more extended writings for the piano or 
orchestra, and so we have the foundation of the sonata and sym- 
phony forms. 

Development of Early Music 

When the people in the early days had found ways of writing 
down the music which they sang and played, by using lines to repre- 
sent pitch, notes to represent duration and certain words or letters to 
represent emphasis or expression, they began to write music in cer- 
tain definite forms or patterns; but nothing of much value was done 
until the fifteenth century. Previous to this period the same music 
was apparently used for church worship and for secular occasions. 
The drama was used in connection with music, and the Greeks of the 
pre-Christian era had many acts or plays combining action or panto- 
mime with music. Later there came the "Miracle" plays under the 
patronage of the church, and from this beginning arose the effort to 
P. S. 98. 4 



make a continued and consecutive setting of the words of a text to 
music. This developed into the opera form, which was then a play 
or drama on some secular subject set to music, and the oratorio, 
which was a sacred or Biblical story set to music. At first the 
oratorio was dramatized, but that phase was finally dropped and the 
oratorio is now given without scenery or action. 

When music first began its real development in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, the parts for all the voices were written in unison and chanted 
or sung together. Then the composers began to seek for variety, 
and experimented in writing different notes for the different voices. 
This art of part- writing was called "polyphony", meaning, literally, 
"many voices". The oldest piece of part-writing which we have at 
the present time, is an English work, entitled ' 'Sumer Is Icumen 
In", dating from the year 1 240. 

Development of Modern Music 

The making of music, as we know it today, began with Bach 
and Handel, who were born in the same year (1685). Bach's music 
seemed to have been used first and so he was always called the ' 'Fa- 
ther of Modern Music". It was Bach who perfected the dance and 
fugue forms. He also did much writing for the pipe organ, of which 
he was a famous player. 

Handel wrote the greatest oratorios which have ever been com- 
posed. After them came "Papa" Haydn, who developed the sym- 
phony, and then Gluck, Mozart and Beethoven, all Germans, each 
of whom contributed something of enduring worth to the progress 
of music. 

In Italy, Donizetti and Bellini wrote many tuneful operas, while 
Meyerbeer and Rossini wrote operas incorporating the French idea of 
dramatic action. Later came Schubert and Schumann, Berlioz and 
Liszt, Gounod and Chopin, Verdi and Wagner. The last two were 
born in the same year, 18 13. All of these men wrote great and mar- 
velously beautiful music, and they constitute the greatest musical 
genius that has appeared so far. 



P. S. 98. 






Within the last few years there have come up a great many new 
composers who have done and are doing splendid things — Grieg, 
Tschaikowsky, Elgar, Puccini, Wolf- Ferrari, and many others. Mu- 
sic has gone beyond the formative stage and is just in its period of 
greatest growth, and so you boys and girls should know about these 
great names, as well as those of the great people in other lines of 
study, such as history or literature. As men have studied more and 
more about music, it has become the most wonderful of the arts, and 
absorbs the earnest attention of more people than any other art, or 
than many of the trades and professions. 

In every civilized country there are today a large number of 
earnest musicians, both men and women, who, just as the masters 
have been doing for the last two hundred years, are engaged in writ- 
ing music in all forms — vocal, instrumental, opera, oratorio, etc., 
until now, music has become one of the most pleasant attributes of 
social life, and one of the most necessary for your real pleasure. 
America is the newest nation of all, and so our music is not so highly 
developed, as is the case with music in some of the older countries ; 
but the standard of American music is daily becoming of more 
serious importance to the world, and our composers are writing some 
very notable works. Even you boys and girls should know the names 
of some of our great early song writers as Foster, Root and Mason; 
and there are many of the later composers about whom you should 
know, such as MacDowell, Nevin, Parker, Chadwick and Mrs. 
Beach. You have already sung many of the songs of Mrs. Gaynor, 
Eleanor Smith, Neidlinger and others. 

The whole subject is one of great interest and you should advise the 
children later to study some book of Music History, as they will find much 
of profit and enjoyment in it. A few examples of the music of the period 
under discussion, or the instruments which illustrate your remarks will lend an 
added interest to these talks and make the subject of vital importance to your 
pupils. 

P. S. 98- 6 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 98 

i 



i Class Letters and No 
Nam 



Account No. 



Town State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. Fill in "Account No." only if it appears on your Lesson Ticket. 

Unless otherwise specified, all Illustrations and Exercises mentioned in this examination paper 

refer to illustrations and Exercises given in the accompanying: lesson. 



1. In giving the lessons in Music History to the Eighth Grade, is there opportunity tor 
you to elaborate on the topics presented? 

2. How much time can you give to this subject in the music period ? 



3. Give two books which are helpful correlated rending on the subject of Music History. 



4. What books have you read on the subject?. 



*• State one additional fact with reference to the Early Scales, apart from the material 



given in the lesson. 



6. Outline very briefly a short lecture on the Origin of Instruments, simply stating the 
topics which would be included in your talk 



7. (a) What is Musical Form?. 



(b) What is the Song Form?. 



8. Analyze the song "My Old Kentucky Home" in the manner given in the lesson. 



9. State one interesting fact about the following subjects: 
Miracle plays 



Opera and Oratorio. 



Polyphony 



The part-song "Sumer Is Icumen In". 



10. State very briefly the facts of development of modern music, tracing its development 
from the time of Bach and Handel, to the present day 



B. Who are the prominent American composers of today?. 



l3 - If you have been able to use the lesson on Music History as suggested, give a report of 
the results of your lectures to your class 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". 

Q. 1 



An»wer 



Q. 2.. 



Amwer 



Q. 3.. 



Aniwer 



Q. 4., 



Aniwer 



Q. i 

■ : . 



Answer 



EIGHTH GRADE SERIES 

SILGLL-MYLR5 
Correspondence 5chool of Music 

Chicago. III. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS 
IN PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC 
By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Lesson No. 99 
Individual Work, Reviews, Tests and Examinations 

At an earlier point in the course, we discussed at some length the value 
and necessity of pupils becoming accustomed to reciting or singing alone. It 
has. been found that the greatest foe to efficiency in sight reading is that, in 
class reading, the actual work is invariabl3 r done by a small percentage of 
the class who are especially musical, or who are quick in recognizing and nam- 
ing the notes. This is always unfair to those who really know the notes and 
can sing them properly, but whose minds do not act quite so quickly as some 
others, and who, therefore, find their work always discounted by their more 
responsive, but sometimes more superficial classmates. 

It is also harmful to those who are more slothful, since by watching, it 
is perfectly easy to copy the words of another so quickly as to deceive the 
teacher and even themselves. It is a well known fact, that, in a class where 
the reading is always in concert, leaders develop who carry the whole class 
along, and thus every appearance is given of each child doing excellent 
work, when in reality only a small percent of the pupils are actually thinking, 
learning and growing. 

Manifestly, individual work is the only remedy, and yet here in the 
Eighth Grade, we are met at once with the fact of the children's overwhelm- 
ing self-consciousness at this particular period. We also cannot escape the fact 
that the music must be made beautiful and attractive, and must enlist the love 
and enthusiasm of the pupils at all times, and yet all of this would be de- 
stroyed by any coercion in demanding an impossible or hated task. The 
adolescent child is the most timid and shy "animal" imaginable, and there 
is nothing more embarrassing to him than to be called upon to stand and 
sing a phrase or song all alone, with the eyes and ears of the whole room 

COPYRIGHT, MCMXIll, BY SIEUEL-MYER8 CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL OF MUSIC 



on him. And so the question arises, how shall we proceed to obtain this 
required efficiency without destroying the children's delicate tracery of self- 
confidence and poise, and without disturbing their love for the music? 

First then, if the individual work has been done all the way up through 
the grades, as suggested throughout this course of lessons, the children will 
have become so accustomed to standing and singing alone, that it is only a 
shade more trying for them to do this than to stand and read aloud, or to 
give any other recitation. Most of the children, in case they have had this 
previous training, will be proud enough to show their skill, and will clamor 
for the privilege of singing a difficult phrase, especially if the exercise is put 
on a good, jully competitive basis. There will always be some, however, who 
become panic stricken when called upon, who in their earlier, less self-conscious 
stage did not mind it at all. 

You must try to make the individual singing as matter-of-fact a procedure 
as possible. Praise those who try, and do not censure nor scold those who refuse, 
if such a thing occurs. Bear in mind, however, that it is very dangerous to 
discipline to allow a pupil to refuse to do anything for you, and, therefore, 
never create a situation where this can occur. The best way is not to ask 
any pupil to sing alone, unless you are sure that he will gladly do so; but 
the secret of the whole process lies in your ability to make them zvant to sing 
alone. At first, if there is a disposition to avoid doing so, let the singing be 
purely voluntary, and by judicious praise and applause of those who do 
respond, try to create a spirit of emulation in the class. 

L,et us suppose that the class as a whole has studied some simple part-song 
or exercise. When all have read the different parts and can apparently sing 
the song quite well, you should say to the class in the lesson some day: 

I should like to hear this song in the different rows of the room to 
see who can sing it the best. All the pupils in Row i, may sing the 
lower part and all in Row 2 the upper part. {Children-sing.) Now, let 
me hear Rows 3 and 4 sing it, and see if they can do as well. Now 
the front row of the room can take the upper part, and the rear row 
may take the lower part. Yes, that was very good. 

Now, I should like to have three pupils come up in front and sing 
the upper part and three pupils sing the lower part. Who would like 
P. S. 99. 2 



to try? Let all hold up their hands who would like to do so. We 
are going to have an open day or concert soon, and we shall want 
several duets, trios and small choruses to sing some special things, 
and we must begin to practice singing this way in our regular work, 
so that I shall know whom to invite to go on the program for special 
work. 

Now, all hold up your hands who would like to try. That is 
good. Emma, Flora and Jane will sing the upper part, and Albert, 
Bruno and Charles can try the lower part. (Children come forward and sing, as 
indicated.) Fine! Now we are all going to help by pretending that we 
are attending a real concert and give just as good attention and 
encouragement to those who are singing, as each one of us would like 
to have when it comes our turn. We want to have as fine singing 
from our room as Room 9 can give. Don't you think we can have 

it? (Teacher gives the pitch.) Come, now let US sing. (Perhaps the boys break down.) 

Ah, never mind, we did not get started quite right. I will sing with 
the boys this time. (They try once more.) There, that was fine. Now, do 
you want to try it alone? (They try.) That was good. You do it 
nicely. Now, children (to the class), let us applaud them to show how 

much we enjoyed their singing it. (Children and teacher applaud vigorously.) 

Now, where can I find four others who will try ? Will Constance 
and Harry sing the soprano and Alice and John the alto? That is 
good. Come on, don't be afraid and I will help you if you need me, 
but I am very sure you won't need me at all. 

Proceed in this way with all the simpler and more familiar two and three 
part-songs. The pupils soon take it as a compliment to be called up, and those 
who have good voices vie with each other in singing in this way for the 
Principal, Superintendent or chance visitor, who conies to the room. 

On the other hand, there are always some pupils who do not have voices 
good enough to compete in this way. Must they be left out? No, indeed. 
Before beginning the study of any exercise or song, there are a number of things 
which must be definitely settled before you can proceed, such as key, meter, 
signature, etc. In a rapid fire of questions about these points, always call upon 
P. S. 99- 3 



those who are not the best singers. Eliminate as far as possible the "star" 
situation, and make your questions reach the big boy in the back row. These 
questions should constitute an ever recurring review of points which have been 
previously studied. History references, meanings of words, marks of expression, 
lengths of certain notes, general tempo, key signature, are but a few of the 
many points you can draw out by these questions. 

Also it is well to draw on the blackboard a long staff, or a series of short 
ones. vSend one row to the board and have the class sing with "la" or "loo" 
:i phrase of the new exercise, the pupils at the board being required to write 
it down in notes. 

Again, give each pupil a sheet of ruled paper, and having given the 
signature or key, sing a phrase and ask the whole class to write it down. Let 
some pupil select a song which she knows, but that the class has not studied, 
and ask her to give the key and sing a phrase, and then ask the class to write it 
on their paper. 

Give quick oral tests, such as the following questions: Name three great 
composers. Name three American composers. Name a song by an American 
composer. Name one German, one English, one French, one Italian, one 
Russian and one Norwegian composer. Name a great national song of some 
other country than our own. Give the name of a great tenor, soprano, 
contralto or bass singer, who is living today. Name three composers of our 
war period. {Root, Foster, Work.') What American poem have you heard 
sung as a concert song ? Do you pay attention to the words of a song when 
you hear it sung? What famous singer, pianist or violinist have you heard? 
What instrument is most commonly used? From what ancient instrument was 
it derived? What instrument is most characteristic of the Scotch? Irish? 
English? German? Italian? Spanish? Russian? Is there any instrument native 
to America? {Banjo.') What is the characteristic difference between a band 
and an orchestra? What are the advantages of playing an orchestral instrument? 

These and hundreds of kindred questions should be brought out at 
different times. Then, when it is desired to give a test or examination, it 
will not be a bugbear to frighten the pupils, but a real test of attention and 
assimilation of facts which may be added to a list wh'ch they should gradually 
collect, bearing on the theory of music. Individual attainment and class work 
should count for 50% on examinations, or replace the written tests entirely. 
P. S. 99- 4 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 99 



Class Letters and No . 



We | 

I Account No 

Wit State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. Fill in- "Account No." only if it appears on your Lesson Ticket. 

Unless otherwise specified, all Illustrations and Exercises mentioned in this examination paper 

refer to illustrations and Exercises Riven in the accompanying lesson. 

'■ In what way can the teacher now reap the advantage of the careful individual training 
given the pupils in the earlier grades? 



B How does the average class work discount' the recitations of those pupils who answer 
more slowly than others?!.: ......... ................;.... 



3. How can' the teacher guard against the development of leaders in the class work?. 



..; ' • • • '••'•, • • • • • • 



4. Throughout the work in the Eighth Grade, what is the great hindrance to individual 

recitation ? 

- 



5. (a) Should the teacher ever lose sight of the fact that the music period must always be 



made attractive to the pupils ? 



(b) In what way does a sense of coercion in the recitation destroy this feeling?. 



6. Describe fully how the teacher can stimulate an interest in individual recitation even 
though there has been no preparation or previous training to encourage this. 



7. What is the secret of success in this work?. 



8. Can competition and applause be made valuable factors in developing individual recita- 



. 






tion? 



9. What attention should be given to those pupils whose voices are not good enough to 
use for competitive solo work? 



10 - Name ten subjects which can be used for a series of rapid fire questions. 



**• What percentage should be given to examinations, to individual work and to class work 
in accounting the grades in music study for the school year ? 






i 

3 



In the spaces below, marked "Q 1," "Q 2," etc., you may ask questions 
in regard to teaching the principles contained in these lessons; your questions 
' will be answered in the spaces marked "Answer". ■ 



Q. i 



Answer 



Q. 2 



Answer 



Q. 3 



Answer 



Q. 4 



Answer 



Q. 5 



Answer 



! 



EIGHTH GRADE SERIES 

5ILGLL-MYLR5 
Correspondence School of Music 

Chicago, III. 

A COURSE OF LESSONS 

IN PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC 

By FRANCES E. CLARK Lesson No. 100 

Music Appreciation and Community Music 

In the last few years a great change has taken place in Public School Music, 
not only hi the modus operandi but in the ideas which lie at the very foundation 
of the whole system. We have come to see that it is not the province of music 
in the public schools to make professional musicians of a musical few, but 
to make intelligent and appreciative listeners to music, of the many. 

Not long ago sight reading was the objective point in all of the music work; 
later it became tone quality and song material, and now it has developed into the 
question of actual knowledge of music appreciation. Emphasis is put not so 
much on the theory of music, as on the study of the real music itself, and the 
culture and growth in appreciation which comes from familiarity with the works 
of the great composers. Each of these objective points was in turn and in itself 
of value, but we are finally coming to see that the ultimate aim of all the music 
study is the ability to enjoy and appreciate the best music the world has. 

Every boy and girl in the grammar schools of our nation should hear a great 
dealof the best music; they should learn to discriminate, judge, analyze, compare, 
differentiate; and should come to know the forms, styles and national character- 
istics of the large repertoire of the world's best music, as a matter of common 
intelligence. This should be done in exactly the same way and for the same 
purpose as they study the poetry, the history and the art of the different nations 
of the world. 

In the music work of the schools, as a whole, but particularly in the Eighth 
Grade, this is of the greatest importance. The children should know the 
Shakespeare songs as well as the Shakespeare plays. They may just as well 
hear the beautiful musical settings of the song-poems of Robert Burns, or 
Thomas Moore or L-ongfellow, as to know them only as literature. It is of more 
educational value for children to study the songs of England than her wars. It 
is far better to know the songs of Italy than to grieve over her misfortunes. 

To accomplish all this, means that the children should hear dozens and 
dozens of selections from the folk-songs of all nations, the good songs of 
modern composers, and a large number of selections from opera and oratorio. 
In some of the more advanced schools, there has been an attempt to accomplish 
this comprehensive program by inviting professional musicians to sing and 
play for the children, but under the very best of circumstances this has brought 
far too little good music to their hearing. Modern Science recently has come 

COPYRIGHT, MCMXIII, BY 8IEUEL-M YER8 CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL OF MUSIC 



to the relief of this situation, and has supplied the means of overcoming this 
vilal lack which has been felt in Public School Music, in the invention and 
perfection of the mechanical player and the talking machine. 

The mechanical piano player is a wonderful aid in studying the higher 
forms of music in the high school and college, but its price renders it more 
or less prohibitive for the grade schools. Then, too, its range of possibility 
is less than that of the talking machine, since it presents piano music only, 
while the talking machine reproduces perfectly the human voice, in all its 
coloring and nuance, and represents in a wonderful way all the orchestral 
instruments, such as the violin, 'cello, harp, the wood-wind instruments and 
the brasses. Thus, we have at hand an almost unlimited, and, at the same 
time, inexpensive means of supplying to the children the world's best music. 
The immense number of records of fine music which have been made, together 
with its relatively low price, make the talking machine the most wonderful 
feature of the age in bringing the cultural value of music to the public schools. 
By the use of this machine we can bring directly into the schools the voices 
of the most wonderful artists of the present generation. These machines afford 
extraordinary opportunity in the cultivation of musical taste and appreciation 
of style among the children, for only by constantly hearing good music can 
their taste be formed for the best, and thus crowd out the lure and glamor of 
the cheap and trashy class of music so prevalent nowadays. 

It is possible to buy a talking machine for the school with sufficient records 
for its use for a long time, by giving one or more complete concerts with the 
instrument, or using it in connection with the children's singing. For these 
concerts a small admission fee can be charged and in this way the machine 
will earn money enough to pay for itself in a very short time. 

The usefulness of the instrument has only just begun to make itself felt. 
The records bring to your hands a most able ally in making music a vilal 
force in the school and community life. With all the hue and cry about 
industrial education and industrial training, it is most necessary for the teacher 
of music to keep her subject in the foreground of the school picture, where 
it belongs. Hence, it is impossible to ignore the educational value of these 
modern inventions and the progressive ideas they have brought into our school 
work. 

Records have been made of the folk-songs of all nations and of the very 
old music of the Troubadors and Minnesingers. If you use them, you can 
make the music history study, given in the two previous lessons, a live and vilal 
subject. The tones of the orchestral instruments have been recorded in the 
excellent orchestra records which have been made, so that these instruments 
may be studied separately, in groups or families, and in ensemble. 

Thus we see that the general trend of all music study is now towards 

the knowing of real music, which is of such vital influence in the world. 

I he Eighth Grade is not too early for the pupils to know the masterpieces 

of music literature and to become thoroughly familiar with them. It always 

P. S. 100. o 



has been, and always will be, impossible to study music appreciation without 
the real music, which must be heard, to be appreciated justly. 

The invention of the talking machine has solved this difficulty, by furnishing 
real music in its most attractive form. This opportunity has been utilized very 
extensively by the most advanced schools in the country. We append a few 
programs which have been given in various schools, which show how the talking 
machine can be used to present the works of the world's greatest composers. 

The following program might be classed as a general utility program, 
showing the possible use of the talking machine throughout the different grades 
of the grammar and high schools. 

General Utility Program 
Miscellaneous 



i . Band : 



2. Orchestra: 



f Under the Double Eagle 
I Si. Patrick 
{ Reap the Flax 



3- 

4- 

5- 
6. 



Soprano Solo: 
Tenor Solo: 

Tenor Solo: 
Soprano Solo: 



Kindergarten 



Primary Grades 



The Norseman 

Mother Goose 
The Sandman 



7. Tenor Solos: 

8. Part Songs: 

9. Tenor Solo: 

10. Quartets: 

11. Reading: 

12. Orchestra: 



Intermediate Grade 

Wyuken, Blynken and Nod 
\ Song of the Shepard Lehl 
\ Lullaby {Brahms) 

Grammar Grade 

j Santa Lucia 

\ Come Back to Erin 

{Scots Wha Hae 
Old Kentucky Home 
All Through the Night 
Voice of the Western Wi?id 
Lift Thine Eyes 
High School 

Hark, Hark the Lark 

j The Miller's Wooing 
\ O Italia, Italia Beloved 

Reading 

Abou Ben Adhem 
Orchestral Instruments 

Selections for Violin, Harp, Flute, 
'Cello Full Orchestra and Band 



Expression 

Tenor Solo: A Dream 

Contralto Solo: Good Bye, Sweet Day 

Opera and Oratorio 
Baritone Solo: Room for the Factotum 

{from "Barber of Seville") 
Chorus: Hallelujah Chorus 

{from " The Messiah") 
Soprano and Tenor Duet: Miserere (from "II Trovatore") 

Sextette: Sextette (from "Lucia") 

Another program given just before the Christmas vacation, consisted of the 
following numbers: 

P- S. 100. \ 



l 3- 
14. 

15- 
16. 

17- 
18. 



Christmas Program 



Chorus: 

Band: 
Bass Solo: 



4 Yule-tide Songs and Carols: 



5. Soprano Solo: 

6. Tenor Solo: 

7. Contralto Solo: 

8. Chorus: 

9. Tenor Solo: 
10. Chorus: 



Adeste Fideles 

( With the Westminster Chimes) 
Yule- Tide (A Christmas Fantasia) 
Nazareth {Christmas Song) 

{Christians, Awake 
Oh, Little Town of Bethlehem 
God Rest You, Merry Gentlemen 
The First Noel 
Silent Night 

No Candle was There, a?id No Fire 
The Birthday of a King 
Silent Night 

Hark, the Herald Angels Sing 
Open the Gates of the Temple 
Hallelujah Chorus 



Two general programs were given with the following numbers: 



3 
4 

5 

6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
1 1 
12 
13 



1. 
2. 
3- 
4- 
5- 
6. 



Band: 
Quartet: 
Soprano Solo: 
Tenor Solo: 
Contralto and 

Band: 

Tenor Solo: 
Contralto Solo: 
Quartet 
Comedian: 
Soprano Solo: 
Tenor Solo: 
Band: 



General Program 

Yule Tide 



(A Christmas Fantasia) 
fesus, Savior, Pilot Me 
ftist A ■ weary in ' For You 
Beautiful Isle of Somewhere 
Tenor Duet: Home to Our Mountains 

(from "II Trovatore") 

Stars and Stripes Forever 

Because 

Holy Night, Silent Night 

Nearer, My God, to Thee 

Roami?ig in the Gloaming 

Lo, Hear the Gentle Lark 

Good Bye 

Home, Sweet Home 



Band: 

Soprano Solo: 
Contralto Solo 
Tenor Solo: 
Violin Solo: 
Baritone Solo: 



General Program 

Overture "19/2' 



7. Soprano and Baritone Duet: 

8. Soprano and Tenor Duet: 

9. Soprano Solo: 

10. Chorus and Band: 



Polonaise (from "Mignon") 

Stille Nacht 

Hark! Hark! the Lark 

Humoreske 

Room for the Factotum 

(from •'The Barber of Seville") 
Barcarolle 

(from " Tales of Hoffman") 
Miserere (from "ft Trovatore") 
Inftammatus 

(from •'Stabat Mater") 
'■Hallelujah Chorus" 

(from ' ' The Messiah ' ') 



We have come to the end of the first half of our journey. If through 
these lessons you have gained some insight and information that will lead to 
the better teaching of music in your class room, if you have been filled with 
zeal to make music the most vital part of the school work in the real education 
of the future citizens of our country, we are indeed content. 
P. S. 100. 



Siegel- Myers Correspondence School of Music 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

A COURSE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC LESSONS 

By FRANCES E. CLARK 

Examination Paper for Lesson No. 100 



i 



Class Letters and No . 



Nam 

Account No 

''own ; State Percentage 

Write name, address and numbers plainly. Fill in "Account No." only if it appears on your Lesson Ticket. 

Unless otherwise specified, all Illustrations and Exercises mentioned in this examination paper 

refer to illustrations and Exercises given in the accompanying: lesson. 



*• Trace the change of ideals in Public. School Music within the last ten or fifteen years. . 



"hat position does music appreciation now hold in Public School Music work?. 



3. In what way have tf 



way have the previous points of emphasis led up to the present position 01 
music appreciation in the work? , 












4. What can be accomplished by consecutive and constructive work in the study of music 



appreciation ? 



5. Through what two inventions has the comprehensive hearing of good music been made 
possible in Public School Music? 



2 



•■ Of the two, which is the most available for the average school?. 



7 - Can we overestimate the educational value of these machines in the cultivation of musical 



taste, appreciation and style?. 



• 1° your school work, have you the opportunity of using either the talking machine 



or the mechanical piano player?. 



• If so, explain the use that has been made of it, indicating the occasions on which it 



was used and the value resulting therefrom. 



REVIEW, 

10. Without referring to your previous lessons, kindly give in very brief space an outlin 
of the methods to be used in presenting the following subjects: 



(a) Cultivation of a soft Singing Tone 



(b) Singing Game and Dramatized Song. 



(c) The first steps in Ear Training. 



(d) Staff Notation. 



(e) Sight Reading. 



( f ) Advanced Ear Training 



*•*•••*" •......••..■.•.•.•...•.•■•.••••■■... 

(g) Key Signatures 



(h) Rhythm 



(i) Part Singing. 



11. Apart from technical details, what do you consider to be the most valuable thing whicl 
you have gained from this Course of Lessons in Public School Music?